AP psychology terms to study

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inductive reasoning

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42 Terms

1

inductive reasoning

when you start with specific observations or facts, to find general rule or conclusion from them. (ex: you notice that every time you eat spicy food, you get a stomach ache, you might conclude that spicy food causes stomach aches.)

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2

deductive reasoning

when you start with general rules, to find a specific conclusion from them. (ex: All dogs have ears; golden retrievers are dogs, therefore they have ears.)

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3

representativeness heuristic

the probability of something based on how SIMILAR it is to other situations (ex: thinking that because someone is wearing a suit and tie and carrying a briefcase, that they must be a lawyer, because they look like the stereotype of a lawyer.)

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4

availability heuristic

the probability of something based on how easily information on the situation is available (ex: plane crashes can make people afraid of flying. However, the likelihood of dying in a car accident is far higher than dying as a passenger on an airplane.)

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5

fundamental attribution error

overemphasizing personal traits and ignoring situational traits that alter other people’s behavior

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6

heritability

the amount of variance in a gene that is controlled by genes

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7

Erik Eriksons psychosocial stages (TAIIIG)

T - Trust vs. Mistrust: In this stage (infancy), the child learns to trust others and the world around them, or they may develop mistrust if their needs aren't consistently met.

A - Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt: During toddlerhood, children begin to assert their independence (autonomy), but if they're overly restricted or criticized, they may develop shame and doubt.

I - Initiative vs. Guilt: In early childhood, children start to take initiative in activities and decision-making. If they're encouraged, they develop a sense of initiative, but if they're overly controlled or criticized, they may feel guilty.

I - Industry vs. Inferiority: This stage occurs during middle childhood when children start to develop a sense of competence and pride in their accomplishments (industry). However, if they feel inadequate or unable to meet expectations, they may develop feelings of inferiority.

I - Identity vs. Role Confusion: In adolescence, individuals explore their sense of self and identity. Successfully navigating this stage involves forming a clear sense of identity, while confusion or lack of direction can lead to identity crisis.

I - Intimacy vs. Isolation: In young adulthood, individuals seek meaningful relationships and intimacy. If they're able to form close, loving relationships, they experience intimacy, but if they struggle with forming connections, they may feel isolated.

G - Generativity vs. Stagnation: This stage occurs in middle adulthood, where individuals focus on contributing to society and future generations (generativity). If they're successful in this, they feel a sense of fulfillment, but if they feel unproductive or stagnant, they may experience stagnation.

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8

Jean Piaget’s Cognitive Development stages

S - Sensorimotor Stage (Birth to 2 years): Infants learn about the world through their senses and motor actions.

P - Preoperational Stage (2 to 7 years): Children develop language and use symbols to represent objects, but they lack logical reasoning.

C - Concrete Operational Stage (7 to 11 years): Children begin to think logically about concrete events and understand conservation.

F - Formal Operational Stage (12 years and beyond): Adolescents can think logically about abstract concepts and hypothetical situations.

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9

Howard Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences (LVN ppl mk!)

L - Logical-Mathematical Intelligence: Capacity for logical reasoning, problem-solving, and mathematical operations.

V - Visual-Spatial Intelligence: Ability to perceive the visual world accurately and manipulate mental images.

N - Naturalistic Intelligence: Sensitivity to and understanding of nature, including the environment and living things.

P - Personal Intelligence (Intrapersonal): Understanding oneself, including feelings, motivations, and goals.

P - People Intelligence (Interpersonal): Ability to understand and interact effectively with others.

L - Linguistic Intelligence: Proficiency in language, including speaking, writing, and understanding words.

M - Musical Intelligence: Ability to understand, create, and appreciate music.

K - Kinesthetic Intelligence: Skill in using one's body effectively and expressing oneself through movement.

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10

fluid intelligence

your ability to process new information, learn, and solve problems

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11

crystalized intelligence

your stored knowledge, accumulated over the years

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12

psychoanalytic theory (Freud)

divides personality into 3 parts:

Id (Instincts and basic needs and urges)

ego ( mediates between the instinctual desires of the id and the critical superego)

superego (ethical component with moral standards by which the ego operates)

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13

psychodynamic theory (Freud)

How your unconscious can explain how you act and your behaviors

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14

displacement

taking negative emotions out on other people

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15

projection

when negative feelings towards yourself are placed on other people

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16

regression

when someone reverts to an early developmental stage as a way of coping (ex: fetal position and crying)

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17

sublimation

rechanneling bad emotions into something good

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18

Maslow’s hierarchy of needs

physiological needs, safety, love and support, self-esteem, self-actualization

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19

Self efficacy

the belief in oneself to produce good results

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20

External locus of control

when someone believes their achievements or behaviors are based on outside factors.

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21

Internal locus of control

when someone believes that their actions and achievements are produced from within.

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22

Big 5 personalities

O - openness: Being eager to learn new things and curiousness.

C - conscientiousness: The tendency to be hard-working, organized, rule abiding, and motivated

E - extroversion: excitability, socialness, and emotional expressiveness.

A - agreeableness: People who value social harmony and getting along with others.

N - neuroticism: The tendency towards depression, anxiety, self-doubt, and other negative feelings.

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23

Primary reinforcers

natural biological needs like food and water

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24

partial reinforcement schedules

  1. Fixed Ratio (FR): Imagine you're paid for every five items you assemble. Once you've completed five items, you receive your payment. It's like a punch card at a coffee shop - buy five coffees, get one free. This schedule reinforces behavior after a set number of responses.

  2. Variable Ratio (VR): Picture playing a slot machine. Sometimes you win after pulling the lever once, sometimes after ten pulls, sometimes after twenty. You never know when you'll win, but you keep trying because the reward is unpredictable. This schedule reinforces behavior after an unpredictable number of responses.

  3. Fixed Interval (FI): Consider a weekly paycheck. You get paid every Friday regardless of how much work you've done during the week. The reinforcement occurs at a fixed time interval (every week), regardless of the amount of work done.

  4. Variable Interval (VI): Imagine checking your email. Sometimes you receive an important message after 5 minutes, sometimes after 30 minutes, and sometimes after an hour. You don't know when the important message will arrive, but you keep checking because it's possible. This schedule reinforces behavior after an unpredictable amount of time has passed.partial reinforcement schedules

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25

manifest content (Freud)

the surface level content of a dream

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26

latent content (Freud)

the underlying symbolic meanings of a dream

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27

neuron structures in order

dendrites, cell body, axon, axon terminal branches

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28

acetylcholine

muscle contraction, autonomic regulation, arousal attention

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29

hippocampus

memory formation/consolidation

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30

medulla

autonomic functions

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31

thalamus

sensory relay center

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32

hypothalamus

homeostasis

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33

cerebellum

voluntary muscle movements

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34

somatosensory cortex

sensory information

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35

amygdala

emotions

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36

frontal lobe

executive functions

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37

Wernike's area

comprehension of language

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38

Broca's area

speech production

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39

all seven senses

sight, audition, gustation, olfaction, somatosensorial, proprioception, balance

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40

Webers law

the change in stimulus intensity needed for a person to detect a difference between two stimuli is proportional

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41

trichromatic theory

3 cones: red, green, blue

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42

examples of gestalt psychology

figure ground relationship, law of closure, principle of similarity

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