[MT 6317 LEC] Unit 2: Basic Principles and Practices

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National Institute of Science and Technology

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1

National Institute of Science and Technology

The standards and reference materials that must be used are the ones referred to by ___________________.

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True

True or False: Standard reference materials certified by NIST are used instead of "primary standards."

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Water

What is the most used reagent in the lab?

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reagent grade

Labs require ________________ water.

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- Prefiltration

- Distillation

- Deionization

- Reverse Osmosis

- Ultrafultration and nanofiltration

What are the methods of water purification?

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Triple Distilled Water

What is the preferred water in Clinical Chemistry?

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SI Units (Systeme International d'Unites)

Provides a uniform system or method of describing physical quantities (based on metric system)

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- Basic Units

- Derived

- Selected accepted non-SI Units

What are the types of units of measurement?

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meter (m)

What is the SI Unit for...

length

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kilogram (kg)

What is the SI Unit for...

Mass

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seconds (s)

What is the SI Unit for...

Time

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ampere (A)

What is the SI Unit for...

Electric Current

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Kelvin (K)

What is the SI Unit for...

Thermodynamic temperature

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mole (mol)

What is the SI Unit for...

amount of substance

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candela (cd)

What is the SI Unit for...

Luminous instensity

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- meter

- kilogram

- second

- ampere

- kelvin

- mole

- candela

What are the basic units?

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- Hertz (Hz)

- Newton (N)

- Celsius (C)

- Katal (kat)

What are the select-derived units?

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Hertz (Hz)

What is the SI Unit for frequency?

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Newton (N)

What is the SI Unit for force?

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Celsius

What is the SI Unit for celsius temperature?

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Katal (kat)

What is the SI Unit for Catalytic Activity?

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- Minute (min)

- Hour (h)

- Day (d)

- Liter (L)

- Angstrom (A)

What are the selected accepted non-si?

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Solute

a substance dissolved in a liquid

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analytes

biologic solutes

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biologic solutes

Analytes are also known as...

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solvent

liquid in which solute is dissolved

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Solution

solute plus solvent

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Concentration

Expressed in percent solution, molarity, molality, normality, moles

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- Colligative Properties

- REDOX Potential

- Conductivity

- pH

- buffers

What are the solution properties?

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Colligative Properties

Osmotic pressure, vapor pressure, freezing point, boiling point

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Redox Potential

Measure of ability of solution to accept or donate electrons

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Conductivity

Measure of how well electricity passes through a solution

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pH

inverse log of hydrogen ion concentration

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Buffers

weak acids or bases and their related salts that minimize changes in hydrogen ion concentration

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- Vapor pressure

- Freezing Point

- Boiling Point

- Osmotic Pressure

What are the Colligative properties? (4)

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Vapor Pressure

pressure at which the liquid solvent is in equilibrium with the water vapor

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Freezing Point

temperature at which the vapor pressures of the solid and liquid phases are the same

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Boiling Point

temperature at which the vapor pressure of the solvent reaches one atmosphere

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Osmotic pressure

pressure the opposes osmosis when a solvent flows through a semipermeable membrane to establish equilibrium

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- Reducing Agent

- Oxidizing Agent

What are the agents in redox potential?

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Reducing Agent

substances that donate electrons

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Oxidizing agents

substances that accept electrons

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Conductivity

Depends on the number of respective charges of the ions present

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Conductivity

Expressed as ohms-1 or mho

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resistivity

Reciprocal of conductivity

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resistivity

Measure of a substance's resistance to the passage of electrical current

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Resistivity

Expressed as ohms

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- liquid-in-glass

- electronic (thermistor probe)

- digital

What are the types of thermometers?

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49

Burets

look like wide, long, graduated pipets with stopcock at one end

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Syringes

sometimes used for transfer of small volumes in blood gas analysis or separation techniques

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Laboratory vessels

flasks, beakers, graduated cylinders

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Pipets

Glass or plastic utensils used to transfer liquids

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Centrifugation

A process in which centrifugal force is used to separate solid matter from a liquid suspension

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mass, speed, radius

The force of centrifuge depends on... (3)

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o Head or rotor

o Carriers or shields attached to vertical shaft of motor

o Metal enclosure

What are the parts of the centrifuge? (3)

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refrigeration centrifuge

important in blood bank when you want to separate the different fractions of blood (fresh frozen plasma should be separated)

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- Fixed

- Hematocrit

- Swinging-ucket

- Angled

What are the type of rotor head type for centrifuge? (4)

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True

True or False: The speed of the centrifuge is essential because if it is too slow then some red blood cells might remain floating in the serum.

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Filtration

Used only occasionally in labs today; Filter materials: paper, cellulose, polyester fibers, glass, resin column materials

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Dialysis

Solution is put in bag or one side of semipermeable membrane; Larger molecules remain in bag or on one side of membrane; smaller molecules and solvents are diffused out

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pleural, pericardial, peritoneal

What are paracentesis fluids?

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paracentesis fluids

Is analyzed concurrently with protein assays for lactate dehydrogenase analysis

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4; -20

Refrigeration at _____ degrees Celsius for 8 hours, or freezing at _____ degrees Celsius for longer period, if later testing is required

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1. Blood-culture tubes (yellow)

2. Coagulation sodium citrate tube (blue stopper)

3. Serum tubes with or without clot activator or gel separator

4. Heparin tubes with or without gel (green stopper) ● Natural anticoagulant

5. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid tubes (lavender stopper)

6. Glycolytic inhibitor tubes (gray stopper)

Enumerate the proper order of draw - color of tube and anticoagulant.

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Heparin

This is a natural anticoagulant.

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Inhibits

Gives a false low/decrease value

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Stimulates

Gives a false increase value

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false

Enzymes react with anticoagulant, so it will give a ______________ result

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Quality Assurance

This encompasses all phases

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● Pre-analytical

● Analytical

● Post-analytical

What are the phases of laboratory testing?

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Analytical

Quality control is the focus of what phase of the laboratory testing?

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Sample Variables

Factors that may affect the results

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Patient preparation

What are the sample variables under physiological considerations?

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- controlled

- uncontrolled

Sample variables could be... (2)

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Controlled variable

Lifestyle is what type of sample variable?

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Uncontrollable variables

Age and gender are what type of sample variable?

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True

T/F: Body fluids and analytes' fluctuations during the day.

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the day

Hormones are increased during __________.

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True

T/F: Fasting should be done early morning because it will be lower later on the day.

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4 am to 6 am

Cortisol peaks at ______ to _______ am.

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8pm to 12 am

Cortisol is the lowest at what time?

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Cortisol

The hormone that increases with stress.

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Adrenocorticotrophic hormone, Cortisol

This is lower at night and increases with stress. (2)

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plasma renin activity

Lower at night; higher standing than supine

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Aldosterone, Insulin

Hormones lower at night.

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Growth hormone and acid phosphatase

Higher in the afternoon and evening

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Thyroxine

Hormone that increases with exercise

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Prolactin

Higher with stress; higher levels at 4 and 8 AM and at 8 and 10 PM

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Iron

Peaks early to late morning; decreases up to 30% during the day

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30%

Iron decreases up to ________ during the day

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Calcium

4% decrease supine

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Exercise

Involves any form of physical activity with short term or transient effect

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True

T/F: Exercise has short term or transient effect.

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lactate; fatty acids; alanine

One hour after exercise increases ______________, _______________, and _______________.

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○ CK

○ AST

○ LDH

○ ALD

The long term effect of exercise increases the enzymatic activity of what enzymes? (4)

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Alcohol or Drugs

Affect the liver; Induce hepatic microsomal enzyme release

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Alcohol

Increases acetate and acetaldehyde level in the blood

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gamma-glutamyl transferase; acetate; acetaldehyde

Alcohol increases __________________, ________________ and __________________ level in the blood.

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Gamma-glutamyl transferase

first enzyme to increase upon intake of alcohol

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Smoking

Acute effects include increasing plasma catecholamines and cortisol due to nicotine

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