Psychology 107 (fall 2023)

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Psych definition

the scientific study of the mind

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inductive reasoning

taking info from a small group and generalizing

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William Wundt (lifespan and accomplishments)

(1832-1920) Started the first psych lab in Germany (1879), studied introspection

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E.B. Titchener

(1867-1927) Introspective method; Structuralism - basic structure and content of human mind

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William James

(1842-1910) 1st US psychologist, stream of consciousness (tracing back to how you started thinking of something), functionalism - interaction between the mind and environment

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Psychoanalytic approach

Unconcious mind, early childhood experiences, Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) used psychoanalysis, Erik Erikson revised freud’s views

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Behavioral Approach

observing and controlling behavior, directly observable and measurable, would ask: how do we learn to be anxious in certain situations? People: Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936), John Watson (1878-1958), B.F. Skinner (1904-1990), Albert Bandura (1925-2021) formed the social cognitive theory which is measuring the response of an organism to a stimulus

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Humanistic Approach

Potential for good in humans, Key figures: Carl Rogers (1902-1987), Abraham Maslow (1908-1970), would say: you have the potential to understand your anxiety

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Cognitive approach

Mind active and aware, Key figure: Noam Chomsky (1928-present)

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Multicultural and Cross Cultural Approach

descriptive science, differences between cultural groups, key figures: Francis Sumner (1895-1954), George Sanchez (1906-1972), Kenneth Clark and Mamie Phipps

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Mary Calkins

(1863-1930) degree in psychology at Harvard was denied by the university

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Margaret Washburn

First female PHD (1894)

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Biopsychological approach

brain and nervous system related to behavior and mental process, neuroscience, would ask: how do levels of certain neurotransmitters contribute to anxiety levels?

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Evolutionary Approach

adaptation and survival of the fittest

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Positive Approaches

Valuable experiences, positive individual traits, positive values

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APA

American Psychological association, founded 1892

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APS

American association for psychological science, founded 1988

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Why do we need psychological science?

Without it we would have biases

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Hindsight bias

I knew it all along

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False consensus affect

tendency to think more people agree with us

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Overconfidence

We think we’re better than we are

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Step 1 of the Scientific Method

Observe phenomenon - choose the problem to study

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Step 2 of the Scientific Method

Generate hypothesis, operational definitions

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Step 3 of the Scientific Method

Collect data - who will you study? population then sample then random sample, which research methods will you use?

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Step 4 of the Scientific Method

Analyze data - connect findings back to the hypothesis, reliability

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Step 5 of the Scientific Method

Summarize data and evaluate theory - larger scientific community reviews and evaluates

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3 types of research

descriptive, correlational and experimental

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Clinical or case study

In depth look at one person, conducted when something rare happens

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Pros of case study

Deep understanding of phenomenon

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Cons of case study

Lack of generalizability

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Observation

Observing and recording behavior, describing not explaining

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Naturalistic observation

behavior in natural setting

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Pros of naturalistic observation

more accurate data

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Cons of naturalistic observation

no control over environment

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Laboratory observations

Observe behavior in a controlled setting

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Pros of laboratory observation

controlled setting

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Cons of laboratory observation

participants are aware they’re being observed, setting is unnatural

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Observer bias

observer skews observations

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inter-rater reliability

poor agreement between observers

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Pros of Surveys

cost effective

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cons of surveys

social desirability - people say whats socially acceptable, under representative sampling

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Archival research

using existing records to answer research questions

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pros of archival research

saves time and money

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Cons of archival research

No control over data, inconsistency between data sets

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Difference between structuralism and functionalism

structuralism is the contents of the mind while functionalism is the behavior of the mind

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Correlational research

describes the association between two variables; the correlational coefficient (r) is positive or negative and the closer it is to 1 the stronger the association

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Confounding variable

third unknown variable that affects both variables

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Longitudinal design

data gathered repeatedly over time

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Cross sectional

data gathered once in time

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Experimental group

group who receives the IV

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Control group

does not receive the IV

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Pros of experiment research

shows cause and effect, controlled conditions, no need to wait for occurrences to happen naturally

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Cons of experimental research

cannot study some natural behaviors experimentally

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External validity

do the results generalize to the real world

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Internal validity

extent to which changes in DV are due to manipulation of the IV

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Can you have both internal and external validity?

No

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Experimenter bias

preconceived knowledge gets in the way of testing; smart rat vs. dumb rat example

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Research participant bias

participants expectations change behavior

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Solution to experiment bias

double-blind experiment

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Ethnic gloss

assuming that all members of an ethnic group have the same characteristics

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Central nervous system

brain and spinal chord, reflexes

<p>brain and spinal chord, reflexes</p>
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Peripheral nervous sytem

network of sensory nerves - connects cns to body

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Afferent nerves

sensory nerves that carry info to the brain

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Efferent nerves

carry info away from brain

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Divisions of PNS

somatic system (controls skeletal muscles, voluntary activities), autonomic system (organs and glands, automatic functions)

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Divisions of autonomic system

Sympathetic (arouses body) and parasympathetic (calms the body)

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sensory neurons

carry info to CNS

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motor neurons

carry info away from CNS

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Interneurons

carry info to and away

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Glial cells (glue)

keep neurons running smoothly

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Soma

cell body

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Dendrites

receive info from other neurons

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Axon

carries info away from neuron

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terminal buttons

on the end of the axon

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synaptic vesicles

inside terminal buttons

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neurotransmitters

inside of synaptic vesicles

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myelin sheath

covers axons and speeds up connection

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how do neurons carry info?

Ions; cell membrane is semi-permeable

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Resting potential

neuron is not firing; negative inside, positive inside

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Threshold

level at which the neuron fires from outside stimulation

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Depolarization

neuron becomes more positive on the inside

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Action potential

electrical signal that moves down the neuron; all or none - strength of stimulus does not affect speed of the action potential

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synapse

junction between two neurons

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first way that neurons communicate

electrical impulse converted to chemical energy

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second way that neurons communicate

neurotransmitters released

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third way that neurons communicate

neurotransmitters cross synapse

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fourth way that neurons communicate

neurotransmitters bind to the receptor sites of the next neuron

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reuptake

sending neuron reabsorbs excess neurotransmitters

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Acetylcholine

(ACh) muscle action, learning and memory

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What can too little ACh cause?

alzheimers

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Beta-endorphin

pain, pleasure

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Dopamine

movement, mood, sleep, learning

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What does too much dopamine cause

schizophrenia

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What does too little dopamine cause?

Parkinson’s

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Gaba

brain function, sleep

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What does too little Gaba cause

anxiety

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Glutamate

Learning and memory

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What does too much glutamate cause

seizures

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Norepinephrine

heart, intestines, alertness

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What do lower levels of norepinephrine cause

depression

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