Unit 4: The Skeleton

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Human Skeleton Bone Number

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121 Terms

1

Human Skeleton Bone Number

206 bones

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Two Skeleton Divisions

  • Axial Skeleton

  • Appendicular Skeleton

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Axial Skeleton Bone Number

80 bones

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Axial Skeleton

  • Bones that lie around longitudinal axis of human body

  • Skull bones, auditory ossicles, hyoid bone, ribs, sternum, and bones of vertebral column

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Auditory Ossicles

Ear bones

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Appendicular Skeleton Bone Number

126 bones

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Appendicular Skeleton

  • Bones of the upper and lower limbs

  • Bones forming girdles

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Extremities

Upper and lower limbs

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Girdles

Bones that connect limbs to axial skeleton

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Types of Bones

  • Long bones

  • Short bones

  • Flat bones

  • Irregular bones

  • Sesamoid bones

  • Sutural bones

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Long Bones

Greater length than width and slightly curved for strength

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Long Bones Examples

  • Femur, tibia, fibula, humorous, ulna, radius, phalanges

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Short Bones

Cube shaped

  • Nearly equal in length and width

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Short Bones Examples

Carpal, tarsal

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Flat Bones

Typically thin, it is also often curved and serve as points of attachment for muscles, and protect internal organs

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Flat Bones Examples

Cranial, sternum, ribs, scapulae

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Irregular Bones

Does not have any easily characterized shape and therefore does not fit any other classification

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Irregular Bones Examples

Vertebrae, hip bones, some facial bones

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Sesamoid Bones

  • Small, round bone that is shaped like a sesame seed

  • Protect tendons from excessive wear and tear

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Sesamoid Bones Examples

Patellae, foot, hand

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Sutural Bones

Small bones located in sutures of cranial bones

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Surface Markings

Structural features adapted for specific functions

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Two Major Types of Surface Markings

  • Hole

  • Projections

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Hole

Allow passage of blood vessels and nerves

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Articulations

Form joints

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Projections

  • Outgrowths that form joints

  • Serve as attachment points for ligaments and tendons

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Skull Bone Numbers

22 bones

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Skull Categories

  • Cranial bones

  • Facial bones

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Cranial Bone Number

8 bones

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Cranial Bones

Frontal bone, two parietal bones, two temporal bones, occipital bone, sphenoid bone, ethmoid bone

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Facial Bones Number

14 bones

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Facial Bones

Two nasal bones, two maxillae, two zygomatic bones, mandible, two lacrimal bones, two palatine bones, two inferior nasal conchae, vomer

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Parietal Bones

Form sides and upper lateral side of skull

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Temporal Bones

Form lateral side and floor of cranium

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Frontal Bone

Forms forehead

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Occipital Bone

Posterior skull and posterior base of cranial cavity

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Sphenoid Bone

Lies at middle part of base of skull

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Ethmoid Bone

  • Supporting structure of nasal cavity

  • Increased surface area in nasal cavity helps humidify inhaled air trapping particles

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Sutures

  • Immovable joint

  • Holds most skull bones together

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Paranasal Sinuses

  • Cavities within cranial and facial bones near nasal cavity

  • Secretions produced by mucous membranes which line the sinuses, drain into nasal

  • Resonance to voice

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Fontanels

  • At birth, unossified tissue spaces link cranial bones

  • Eventually replaced with bone to become sutures

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Fontanels Reason

Provide flexibility to fetal skull as it passes through birth canal

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Hyoid Bone

  • Does not have contact with any other bone

  • Base for tongue above, and is attached to larynx below and pharynx posteriorly

  • Coordinated with movements of tongue, larynx, and pharynx during swallowing and speaking

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Vertebral Column

  • Spine or spinal column

  • Curved to varying degree

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Vertebral Column Functions

  • Protect spinal cord

  • Supports head, neck, and body

  • Point of attachment for ribs, pelvic girdle, and muscles

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Vertebral Curve

  • Increase the column strength

  • Helps maintain balance in upright position

  • Absorbs shock during walking

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Vertebrae Bone Numbers

Adult = 26

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Vertebrae

  • 7 cervical neck region

  • 12 thoracic posterior to thoracic cavity

  • 5 lumbar support lower back

  • 1 sacrum five fused sacral vertebrae

  • 1 coccyx four fused coccygeal vertebrae

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Cervical Vertebrae Bones

7

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Thoracic Vertebrae Bones

12

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Lumbar Vertebrae Bones

5

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Vertebrae Consist Of

  • Body (weight bearing)

  • Vertebral arch (surrounds spinal cord)

  • Seven processes (Points of attachment for muscles)

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Vertebrae Conditions

  • Scoliosis

  • Kyphosis

  • Lordosis

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Intervertebral Discs

Found b/w bodies adjacent vertebrae

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Intervertebral Discs Function

  • Form strong joints

  • Permit various movements of vertebral column

  • Absorb vertical shock

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Thoracic Cage

  • Sternum

  • Ribs

  • Costal cartilages

  • Thoracic vertebrae

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Thorax Functions

  • Enclose and protect organs in thoracic and abdominal cavities

  • Provide support for bones of upper limbs

  • Role in breathing

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The Appendicular Skeleton

  • Primary function is movement

  • Includes bones of upper and lower limbs

  • Girdles attach limbs to axial skeleton

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Upper Limb

Each upper limb has 32 bones

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Upper Limb Regions

  • Pectoral (shoulder) girdle

  • Free part

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Pectoral Girdle Bone Number

2 bones

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Pectoral Girdle Bones

  • Clavicle

  • Scapula

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Clavicle

Collarbone

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Scapula

Shoulder blade

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Free Part Bone Numbers

30 bones

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Free Part Bones

  • Humerus

  • Radius and ulna

  • Carpals

  • Metacarpals

  • Phalanges

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Humerus

  • Longest and largest bone of free part of upper limb

  • Distal end articulates at elbow with radius and ulna

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Forearm

  • Ulna

  • Radius

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Ulna

Longer of two forearm bones

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Radius

Right down to thumb

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Hand

  • Carpus consists of 8 small bones (carpals)

  • 2 rows of carpal bones

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Carpus

Wrist

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Rows of Carpal Bones

  • Proximal row

  • Distal row

  • Scaphoid

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Scaphoid

Most commonly fractured

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Lower Limb Regions

  • A single pelvic girdle (2 bones)

  • The free part (30 bones)

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Hip Bone

  • Coxal or pelvic bone

  • Formed from ilium, pubis, ischium

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Foot

Tarsals, metatarsals, phalanges

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Fibrous Joints

  • Fibrous tissue

  • No joint cavity b/w bones

  • Mostly immovable

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Most Common Fibrous Joints

Suture joints

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Syndesmosis Joints

Distal ends of tibia and fibula

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Gomphosis Joints

Tooth fits into socket via ligament

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Cartilaginous Joints

  • Bones are joined by cartilage tissue

  • No joint cavity b/w bones

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Synchondrosis

Diaphysis and epiphysis region in long bone in children

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Symphysis

Two anterior pelvic bones join to form pubic symphysis

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Synovial Joints

  • Bones separated by fluid-containing cavity

  • Most joints in body are synovial

  • Elbow and knee

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Synarthrosis

  • Immovable joint

  • Held together by dense fibrous connective tissue

  • Suture joints in skull

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Amphiarthrosis

  • Slightly movable joint

  • Separated by cartilage

  • Pubic symphysis and vertebrae

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Diarthrosis

Synovial Joint

  • Articular cartilage

  • Joint capsule

  • Synovial membrane

  • Synovial fluid

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Articular Cartilage

Surface end of joining bones covered in smooth articular cartilage (hyaline)

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Joint Capsule

  • Made of fibrous connective tissue

  • Encloses joint in strong sleeve-like covering

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Synovial Membrane

  • Inner surfaces of joint cavity lined with membrane

  • Secretes synovial fluid into joint cavity

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Synovial Fluid

Lubricant helps to ease friction

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Pivot

Rotation of radius

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Hinge

Elbow

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Condyloid

Knuckles

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Knuckles

Metacarpophalangeal joint

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Saddle

Carpometacarpal joint of thumb

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Plane

Wrist and ankle bones

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Ball and Socket

Shoulder and hip joints

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Flexion

  • Bending of joint

  • Decreases angle b/w bones

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