Christianity, Hinduism, Confucianism, Daoism, Buddhism, Islam, Judaism

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Origin time? - Christianity

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105 Terms

1

Origin time? - Christianity

~ 30 CE

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2

Origin place? - Christianity

The Levant

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3

Founder? - Christianity

Jesus

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4

Ethnic/universal? - Christianity

Universal

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5

Holy text? - Christianity

Christian Bible (Old Testament, New Testament)

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6

Religious feelings? - Christianity

Yes

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7

Prayer and other forms of communication? - Christianity

Fundamental; a variety of forms of prayer. Can be guided by a priest/minister/etc., but can be personal and individual as well

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8

Sacred vs. profane objects, places, times? - Christianity

All about Jesus, and the faith's sacred objects, places, and times reflect that

Objects: crucifix/cross, bible, holy water, communion elements

Places: churches and cathedrals, Bethlehem, Jerusalem

Times: Jesus' birthday, Good Friday, Easter, Sunday

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9

Ritual acts focused on sacred objects, places, times? - Christianity

Baptism, eucharist (communion), confirmation (Catholicism), marriage, confession, anointing of the sick

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10

Moral code? - Christianity

Jesus' teachings in the New Testament, also Ten Commandments of the Old Testament

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11

World view/how the organization of one's life is based on the world view? - Christianity

  • Believe in the teachings of Jesus Christ as the Son of God and the Savior

  • Emphasize faith in Christ's sacrifice for salvation, divine grace, and the resurrection

  • The Holy Trinity - God as Father, Son, and Holy Spirit - is a central belief

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12

Belief in supernatural beings? - Christianity

Yes, God (AKA Yahweh, Allah)

Also angels, saints, concept of the trinity, miracles, demons, divine incarnation, resurrection and afterlife, divine intervention and providence, etc. (depending on sect)

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13

Social group? - Christianity

Yes

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14

Summative blurb - Christianity

Monotheistic Abrahamic religion centered around the life, teachings, death, and resurrection of Jesus Christ; followers believe in the divinity of Jesus and that they can attain salvation through faith and grace

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15

Evangelism? - Christianity

Yes

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16

Origin time? - Hinduism

Likely before 2000 BCE

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17

Origin place? - Hinduism

India

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18

Founder? - Hinduism

Unknown

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19

Ethnic/universal? - Hinduism

Ethnic

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20

Holy text? - Hinduism

Vedas, Mahabharata (Bhagavad Gita is a piece), Ramayana

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21

Religious feelings? - Hinduism

Yes

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22

Prayer and other forms of communication? - Hinduism

Wide range of practices for speaking with the divine: prayers (Bhakti) are central, hymns, mantras, etc. to seek blessings, guidance, and solutions to problems

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23

Sacred vs. profane objects, places, times? - Hinduism

Objects: statues (vigrahas/murtis), incense, lamps, flowers, holy water; symbols (om, swastika); tulsi plant (holy basil - represents purity, devotion)

Places: temples, Ganges River, Mount Kailash (house of Shiva), city of Varanasi

Times: Diwali (festival of lights - victory of light over darkness, good over evil); Holi - festival of Spring and love; Maha Shivaratri - night dedicated to Shiva

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24

Ritual acts focused on sacred objects, places, times? - Hinduism

  • Temple worship, pilgrimages, chants, incense

  • Festivals: rituals, processions, and celebrations

  • Astrological timing often plays a role in planning weddings, housewarmings, and other significant events

  • Puja - offering of prayers, incense, and food to deities

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25

Moral code? - Hinduism

Directly and deeply connected to the concept of dharma - your destined duties, and righteous and ethical living alignment with cosmic orde

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26

World view/how the organization of one's life is based on the world view? - Hinduism

Follow teachings of ancient scriptures like the Vedas and Upanishads. Believe in karma (actions and consequences), dharma (righteous duty), and reincarnation, with the goal of achieving moksha (liberation) from the cycle of birth and death.

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27

Belief in supernatural beings? - Hinduism

Yes, everything is the universal spirit

  • Brahma (creator god), Vishnu (preserver and protector), Shiva (destroyer and transformer), Devi [aka Durga] (the mother goddess)

  • Also: Ganesha, Hanuman, Lakshmi, Saraswati

In some interpretations gods seen as individual entities; others see Hinduism as polytheistic - the religion is pretty flexible so there are tons of different ways of looking at it also reincarnation (though sometimes that can be explained in a secular way)

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28

Social group? - Hinduism

Yes

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29

Summative blurb - Hinduism

Ancient Indian religious tradition; very flexible, encompasses a wide array of beliefs, practices, and deities, with its core principles rooted in concepts such as dharma, karma, and moksha

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30

Evangelism? - Hinduism

No

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31

Origin time? - Confucianism

~ 600 BCE

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32

Origin place? - Confucianism

China

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33

Founder? - Confucianism

Confucius

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34

Ethnic/universal? - Confucianism

Ethnic

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35

Holy text? - Confucianism

Analects

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36

Religious feelings? - Confucianism

Yes

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37

Prayer and other forms of communication? - Confucianism

As the focus is on maintaining proper social and familial relations, ancestor veneration is the main way they communicate - some adherents seek guidance from their ancestors

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38

Sacred vs. profane objects, places, times? - Confucianism

Confucius stated that divine realms are beyond human comprehension; the focus of philosophy is about human interaction and moral character; makes daily life a sacred space in a sense

Objects: altars, artwork, texts

Places: family home/home altars, academies (pre-modern), community temples and public cemeteries (ancestor worship), Confucian temples

Times: Ancestor worship takes place year round; many traditionally Chinese festivals and holidays are wrapped up with Confucianism because of its longstanding existence in Chinese culture

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39

Ritual acts focused on sacred objects, places, times? - Confucianism

  • Familial/ancestral shrines are common in homes of adherents, and ancestral worship is common through offerings of food, incense, and prayers

  • Rites and ceremonies such as weddings, funerals, coming of age

  • Cemetery rites and burial practices

  • Festivals and celebrations (Harvest, Confucian's birthday)

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40

Moral code? - Confucianism

  • A divine order governs the universe

  • Moral code is intricately connected to the reverence for ancestors and the divine which shape the behavior of individuals within society

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41

World view/how the organization of one's life is based on the world view? - Confucianism

Emphasize moral values, proper conduct, and maintaining social harmony. They follow the teachings of Confucius, focusing on virtues such as benevolence, filial piety, and righteousness. Rituals and respect for elders are central.

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42

Belief in supernatural beings? - Confucianism

Primarily philosophical; does not revolve around supernatural beliefs or worship of deities

Supernatural elements: ancestor worship, divinations (predicting the future)

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43

Social group? - Confucianism

Yes

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44

Summative blurb - Confucianism

Ancient moral and philosophical system focused on ethical conduct, social harmony, and cultivation of virtuous behavior; China's longest standing continuity

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45

Evangelism? - Confucianism

No

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46

Origin time? - Daoism

~ 600 BCE

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47

Origin place? - Daoism

China

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48

Founder? - Daoism

Lao Tse (Laozi)

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49

Ethnic/universal? - Daoism

ethnic with universal appeal - strong ties to Chinese culture, but its appeal has spread all over the world

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50

Holy text? - Daoism

Dao de Ching

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51

Religious feelings? - Daoism

Yes

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52

Prayer and other forms of communication? - Daoism

  • Offerings are the way they commune and maintain balance, seek protection, and express gratitude

  • Meditation and visualization techniques

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53

Sacred vs. profane objects, places, times? - Daoism

Focus on nature is very evident via the way they define sacred

Objects: yin-yang symbol, incense, talismans (inscriptions and charms)

Places: temples/shrines, mountains, nature

Times: festivals, Chinese New Year, equinoxes and solstices

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54

Ritual acts focused on sacred objects, places, times? - Daoism

  • Temples and altars: offerings like incense, candles, and food and made to spiritual entities/cosmic forces/sages

  • Feng shui: arranging space to harmonize w/ natural flow of Qi (rooted in Daoism)

  • Meditation and nature worship rituals

  • Pilgrimages to sacred natural sites

  • Tai Chi and Qi Gong: physical practices to balance the flow of Qi

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55

Moral code? - Daoism

Natural flow of the Dao is emphasized as the underlying principle of the universe - adherents are guided by it toward virtuous behavior, compassion, and humility. Wu Wei and "effortless action"

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56

World view/how the organization of one's life is based on the world view? - Daoism

Seek harmony with the Dao, the underlying principle of the universe. They emphasize simplicity, balance, and living in accordance with nature. Daoist practices include meditation, rituals, and embracing the concept of yin and yang.

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57

Belief in supernatural beings? - Daoism

Primarily philosophical, though hinges on the focus of living in harmony with the Way and in alignment with the natural flow of the universe (which at its core is something we don't understand)

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58

Social group? - Daoism

Yes

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59

Summative blurb - Daoism

Ancient Chinese philosophical and spiritual tradition centered on the concept of the Way, emphasizing harmony with nature, simplicity, and living in alignment with the natural flow of the universe

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60

Evangelism? - Daoism

No

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61

Origin time? - Buddhism

~ 600 BCE

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62

Origin place? - Buddhism

India

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63

Founder? - Buddhism

Siddhartha Gautama

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64

Ethnic/universal? - Buddhism

Universal

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65

Holy text? - Buddhism

Tripitaka

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66

Religious feelings? - Buddhism

Yes

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67

Prayer and other forms of communication? - Buddhism

Recitation of Mantras, meditation

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68

Sacred vs. profane objects, places, times? - Buddhism

There are still sacred and profane components, but their distinction isn't very prominent....

Objects: Buddha, statues, Bodhi Tree, Stupas (house relics of Buddha, other revered people)

Places: Lumbini, Nepal (birthplace of SG; common pilgrimage site), Bodh Gaya (India, where Buddha attained enlightenment; common pilgrimage site)

Times: founder's birthday; first sermon (Asalha Puja); Parinirvana (birth, enlightenment, and death) of Buddha

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69

Ritual acts focused on sacred objects, places, times? - Buddhism

  • Using statues/scripture

  • Visiting temples/pilgrimage sites

  • Observing special occasions

  • Walking clockwise around sacred objects, stupas, and temple complexes

  • Meditation -Pilgrimages

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70

Moral code? - Buddhism

5 precepts (but they are not necessarily supernatural in origin) refrain from killing, stealing, misconduct in intimacy, false speech, intoxicants

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71

World view/how the organization of one's life is based on the world view? - Buddhism

Follow the teachings of Siddhartha Gautama (Buddha), emphasizing the Four Noble Truths-the nature of suffering and the path to end it. They practice meditation, seek to achieve enlightenment, and follow ethical principles like the Eightfold Path

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72

Belief in supernatural beings? - Buddhism

Overall, more philosophical - focus is on the practical path to reduce suffering through individual insight, ethical behavior, and cultivation of wisdom. Supernatural elements do exist in some practices:

  • Some Mahayanas: Buddha is a god/bodhisattvas are spiritual entities

  • Universal spirit is everything

  • Beliefs in karma, enlightenment, nirvana, all abstract ideas beyond the natural world

  • Miracles/psychic powers sometimes referenced

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73

Social group? - Buddhism

yes

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74

Summative blurb - Buddhism

Ancient spiritual and philosophical system focused on reaching enlightenment through compassion, self-awareness, and elimination of desire. Arguably a reaction to Hinduism in some ways.

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75

Evangelism? - Buddhism

Some evangelism

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76

Origin time? - Islam

640 CE

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77

Origin place? - Islam

Saudi Arabia

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78

Founder? - Islam

Muhammad

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79

Ethnic/universal? - Islam

Universal

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80

Holy text? - Islam

Quran

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81

Religious feelings? - Islam

Yes

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82

Prayer and other forms of communication? - Islam

One of the five pillars of Islam; not only recitations but also physical movements to go with them to show submission, devotion, and gratitude

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83

Sacred vs. profane objects, places, times? - Islam

Objects: Quran, Kaaba, Black Stone (in Kaaba)

Places: Mecca, Medina, Grand Mosque (surrounds Kaaba in Mecca), final resting place of Muhammad (Medina mosque), mosques

Times: daily prayers, Ramadan (fasting during daylight to show discipline), Hajj (pilgrimage to Mecca)

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84

Ritual acts focused on sacred objects, places, times? - Islam

Hajj, daily prayers facing Mecca, Ramadan

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85

Moral code? - Islam

Quran - believed to be the literal word of Allah revealed to Muhammad through the Angel Gabriel (divine revelation)

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86

World view/how the organization of one's life is based on the world view? - Islam

Believe in Allah as the ONLY god and follow the teachings of the Prophet Muhammad as recorded in the Quran. They believe in accountability in the afterlife and practice the Five Pillars of Islam, including faith, prayer, fasting, charity, and pilgrimage.

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87

Belief in supernatural beings? - Islam

Yes - Allah also angels, jinn, prophets, miracles, day of judgment, etc.

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88

Social group? - Islam

Yes

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89

Summative blurb - Islam

Monotheistic Abrahamic religion founded on the teachings of the Prophet Muhammad, as revealed in the Quran, emphasizing faith in one God (Allah) and submission to his will

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90

Evangelism? - Islam

Yes

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91

Origin time? - Judaism

2000 BCE (4,000 years ago)

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92

Origin place? - Judaism

The Levant

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93

Founder? - Judaism

Abraham

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94

Ethnic/universal? - Judaism

Ethnic

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95

Holy text? - Judaism

Tanakth (Jewish Bible, Torah)

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96

Religious feelings? - Judaism

Yes

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97

Prayer and other forms of communication? - Judaism

The most important part of Judaism; takes various forms but communal and individual prayer are very common

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98

Sacred vs. profane objects, places, times? - Judaism

Objects: Torah scroll (scared texts of the Hebrew Bible), menorah (a 7 or 9 light candelabra), shofar (a ram's horn blown during certain holidays), and the tallit (prayer shawl)

Places: Jerusalem, synagogues, Western Wall (AKA Wailing Wall)

Sacred Times: Shabbat (weekly day of rest), Passover, Yom Kippur, Hanukkah

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99

Ritual acts focused on sacred objects, places, times? - Judaism

  • Synagogue services

  • Shabbat: lighting candles, reciting blessings, refraining from work

  • Kosher dietary laws

  • Bar/bat mitzvahs involve reading from the Torah in front of the congregation

  • Mikveh (ritual bath)

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100

Moral code? - Judaism

Torah (including 10 Commandments) - given to Moses on Mount Sinai by God

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