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Glucose and oxygen

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Biology

10th

184 Terms

1

Glucose and oxygen

What are the reactants in the equation for cellular respiration?

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2

Glucose

The starting molecule for glycolysis is _________.

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3

Lactic acid fermentation

One cause of muscle soreness is ______.

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4

Electron carriers

During one turn, the Krebs cycle produces mostly _________.

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5

NADH and FADH2

Which molecules pass high-energy electrons into the electron transport chain?

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6

Photosynthesis

Which process does NOT release energy from glucose?

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7

Mitochondria

Photosynthesis is to chloroplasts as cellular respiration is to _____.

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8

2 ATP molecules

Without oxygen, a cell can extract a net gain of how many ATP molecules from each glucose molecule?

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9

ATP

(adenosine triphosphate) main energy source that cells use for most of their work

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10

respiration v cellular respiration

respiration is at the organ level, cellular respiration is at the cellular level, and both allow for sugar to create ATP and release CO2 while consuming O2

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11

location: cytoplasm v mitochondria

What is the difference between prokaryotes and eukaryotes in terms of cellular respiration?

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12

cellular membrane; inner mitochondrial membranes

In prokaryotes, the electron transport chain is located in the _________________, and in eukaryotes, it is located in the ______________________.

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13

reactants - products

The ____________of photosynthesis are the same as the ________________ of cellular respiration.

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14

pyruvic

Glycolysis converts glucose into two molecules of _____________ acid.

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15

yeasts

Organisms that use alcoholic fermentation include __________ and some microorganisms.

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16

hydrogen

In the electron transport chain, ATP synthase allows _________________ ions to pass through the membrane, creating enough force to create ADP from ATP.

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17

No sugars would be produced

If carbon dioxide is removed from a plant's environment, what would you expect to happen to its production of high-energy sugars?

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18

The rate of photosynthesis increases for a while, and then levels off

If you continue to increase the intensity of light that a plant receives, what happens?

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19

Chloroplast

Photosynthesis happens in which organelle?

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20

6CO2 + 6H2O -> C6H12O6 + 6O2

What is the correct molecular formula for photosynthesis?

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21

Chlorophyll

What is the principal pigment of plants?

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22

red, orange, blue, violet

Which region(s) of the visible spectrum does the principle plant pigment ABSORB?

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23

green and yellow

Which region(s) of the visible spectrum does the principle plant pigment REFLECT?

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24

Stack of thylakoids

A granum is a(n)_________________.

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25

Photosystems

The light-collecting units of a chloroplast are the ____________________.

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26

Oxygen gas

What is a product of the light-dependent reactions?

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27

Pigments in photosystem II absorb light

Which step is the beginning of photosynthesis?

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28

Stroma

The Calvin cycle takes place in the ______________.

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29

Thylakoid membranes

The light dependent reactions take place in the ______________.

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30

Light-independent reactions

The Calvin cycle is another name for _________________.

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31

autotroph

Organisms that can make their own food.

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32

pigment

Light absorbing molecules.

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33

ATP

Adenosine triphosphate

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34

heterotroph

An organism that must eat to obtain its energy.

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35

chlorophyll

The main plant pigment.

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36

thylakoid

Sac-like, photosynthetic membranes.

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37

NADP+

A carrier molecule for high-energy electrons

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38

ATP synthase

A protein that allows H+ to pass through a membrane.

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39

Calvin cycle

Uses CO2, ATP and NADPH to produce sugars.

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40

photosynthesis

Chemical process that changes carbon dioxide and water into sugars and oxygen in the presence of light.

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41

photosystem

A cluster of pigments like chlorophyll found inside thylakoid membranes.

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42

More oxygen produced = higher rate of photosynthesis

How does oxygen production relate to the rate of photosynthesis?

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43

water

What molecule is broken down to replace the electrons of chlorophyll?

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44

How does temperature affect oxygen production?

Photosynthesis rates will increase as the temperature increases, then plateau, and if temperature continues to increase the rate will rapidly decrease due to damage

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45

How does CO2 level affect oxygen production?

More CO2 can increase photosynthesis rates and therefore produce more oxygen.

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46

CO2 and water

What components do plants use to grow larger?

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47

gas exchange

What are stoma and what is their role in photosynthesis?

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48

producing sweat

the most likely homeostatic response to an increase in environmental temperature

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49

example of positive feedback

Increasing muscle contraction during childbirth.

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50

negative feedback loop

A feedback loop in which a system responds to a change by returning to its original state, or by decreasing the rate at which the change is occurring.

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51

communication pathway

sensors, control center, communication system, target

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52

sensors

detect changes in the environment

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53

Brain (Central Nervous System)

takes the messages from the sensors and is known as the control center

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54

communication system

Messages from the brain are sent to either the nervous system (muscles) or the endocrine system (hormones)

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55

target organ/muscle

responds to messages from the communication system and changes its level of activity to help you maintain homeostasis

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56

positive feedback loop

feedback loop that causes a system to change further in the same direction

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57

Homeostasis

maintaining stable internal conditions

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58

more

In a hypertonic environment, the extracellular solution is __________________ concentrated than the intracellular solution.

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59

equally

In an isotonic environment, the extracellular solution is __________________ concentrated than the intracellular solution.

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60

less

In a hypotonic environment, the extracellular solution is __________________ concentrated than the intracellular solution.

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61

In a hypertonic environment, osmosis causes the net movement of water ___________________ the cell.

out of

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62

In an isotonic environment, osmosis causes the net movement of water ___________________ the cell.

equally back and forth

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63

In a hypotonic environment, osmosis causes the net movement of water ___________________ the cell.

into

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64

In a hypertonic environment, the net water movement will continue until the cell reaches a dynamic equilibrium or until the cell __________ and dies.

shrivels up

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65

In a hypotonic environment, the net water movement will continue until the cell reaches a dynamic equilibrium or until the cell __________ and dies.

lyses

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66

active transport

Energy-requiring process that moves material across a cell membrane against a concentration difference

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67

facilitated diffusion

Movement of molecules from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration.

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68

facilitated diffusion

Movement of specific molecules across cell membranes through protein channels following the concentration gradient.

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69

Osmosis

Diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane

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70

purpose of homeostasis in the human body

To maintain ideal conditions in which cells can perform their function in order to keep an organism living and functioning at peak performance.

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71

poikilotherm

An organism whose body temperature changes with its surrounding environment

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72

homeotherm

An organism that maintains a controlled internal body temperature using its own heating and cooling mechanisms

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73

membrane spanning proteins

membrane protein that spans the entirety of the membrane; function as gateways to permit the transport of specific substances across the membrane.

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74

Thermoregulation

-cooling mechanisms include sweating, which absorbs heat from the body through evaporation of water from sweat, and vasodilation. Sweat glands are innervated by postganglionic cholinergic sympathetic neurons.

-warming mechanisms include piloerection, in which arrector pili muscles contract, causing hairs to stand on end (trapping a layer of warmed air around the skin), vasoconstriction, shivering and insulation provided by fat

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75

blood sugar regulation

After eating a meal with sugars, blood sugar levels go up. The PANCREAS releases INSULIN that travels to LIVER AND FAT CELLS that store excess Glucose as GLYCOGEN. As blood sugar drops too low, the PANCREAS secretes GLUCAGON that travels to LIVER AND FAT CELLS that convert GLYCOGEN back into GLUCOSE and release it into the bloodstream.

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76

blood clotting (coagulation)

This is an important process that prevents excessive bleeding when there is an injury or internal bleeding. A positive feedback loop allows the wound to be temporarily closed to stop bleeding while cells can be repaired.

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77

Kidney

organ that removes urea, excess water, and other waste products from the blood and passes them to the ureter

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78

Hierarchy of Life

atom, molecule, organelle, cell, tissue, organ, organ system, organism, population, community, ecosystem, biosphere

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79

two main stages of cell division

mitosis and cytokinesis

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80

When chromosomes become visible at the beginning of cell division, each chromosome has two identical sister....

chromatids

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81

The point at which a pair of chromatids is connected

centromere

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82

A cell spends about 90% of its life in which phase of the cell cycle?

interphase

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83

The chronological order of the cell cycle phases

G1, S, G2, M

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84

prophase

chromosomes become visible, centrioles move to opposite sides of the nucleus, mitotic spindles form, and the nuclear envelope and nucleolus disappear

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85

anaphase

chromosomes separate at the centromere move until they form two groups near the poles of the spindle

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86

metaphase

chromosomes line up across the center of the cell

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87

telophase

chromosomes become uncondensed, mitotic spindle fibers and centrioles disappear, and the nuclear envelope and nucleolus reform

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88

cytokinesis

the cytoplasm and all organelles other than the nucleus divided, beginning with the "peanut" shaped cell and ending with two distinct new cells

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89

What type of reproduction does mitosis create?

asexual

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90

What type of reproduction does meiosis create?

sexual

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91

What process ensures that each daughter cell gets one complete set of genetic information and that each daughter cell also has increased surface area?

mitosis

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92

Before cell division, each chromosome consists of two identical ___________________.

sister chromatids

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93

What phase of mitosis takes the longest period of time?

Time in prophase

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94

The two small structures that separate and take up positions on opposite sides of the nucleus during prophase are the _____________.

centrioles

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95

What is the correct sequence of the phases of mitosis?

prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase

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96

What is the role of the spindle fibers during mitosis and meiosis?

separate the chromosomes

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97

Cancer is a disorder of the cell cycle in which some cells have lost the ability to control their ____________.

growth rate

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98

G1 phase

Involves growth in physical size of the cell

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99

S phase

Completes DNA replication

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100

G2 phase

Involves cell growth, making copies of proteins and organelles, and initiating final preparations for mitosis

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