All Biology Definitions

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Ecology

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Biology

11th

282 Terms

1

Ecology

Is the scientific study of the interactions of organisms in their environment

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2

Ecosystem

Community of organisms and their environment e.g. seashore ecosystem

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3

Biosphere

The part of the earth where organisms can live

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4

Habitat

Part of an ecosystem where organisms live

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5

Community

The different groups of organisms living in an ecosystem

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6

Niche

The role of an organism in an ecosystem

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7

Abiotic Factors

Non - living features of the environment that affect the community e.g. aspect

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8

Biotic Factors

Living factors of the environment that affect the community e.g. food

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9

Food Web

The interconnection between two or more food chains

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10

Food Chain

Pathway along which energy is passed from one organism to another

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11

Trophic Level

Feeding stage in a food chain

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12

Pyramid of numbers

Diagram that shows the number of organisms at each trophic level

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13

Competition

When organisms in an ecosystem struggle for a resource that is in short supply

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14

Contest Competition

A physical confrontation between two organisms and only one can win the resource

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15

Scramble Competition

A struggle for a resource in an ecosystem with all the organisms obtaining a small amount of the resource

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16

Predation

The killing , catching and eating of another animal

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17

Parasitism

When one organism live in or on a second organism from a different species , feeding on it and causing it harm

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18

Symbiosis

When two organisms , from different species lives together and at least one benefits

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19

Mutualism

When two organisms from different species live together and both benefit e.g. clover and rhizobium

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20

Commensalism

When two organisms from different species live together and one benefits and the other neither benefits or is harmed e.g. birds nest in a tree

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21

Conservation

The wise management of the environment and its resources

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22

Pollution

The addition of anything harmful to the environment e.g. gases from burning fossil fuels

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23

Eutrophication

When nutrients run off from the land into a lake / river which causes the dense growth of plants in the water and the death of fish and other organisms

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24

Decomposers

Microorganisms and other organisms that return nutrients to the environment by death and decay

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25

Hypothesis

An educated guess

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26

Experiment

Designed to test the hypothesis

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27

Control

Used to compare the results of an experiment

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28

Data

The collection of observations and results

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29

Replicate

A repeat of the experiment

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30

Theory

A hypothesis supported by results gathered over a long period of time

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31

Double - blind Testing

Neither the experimenter nor the test group know the treatment that is being given

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32

Observation

Taking in information about the natural world

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33

Law / Principle

A definite and factual explanation

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34

Random Selection

Choosing without a method or conscious choice

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35

Placebo

A substance used as a control in an experiment

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36

Diversity

The large variety of organisms on earth

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37

Cell

The basic unit of structure and function in an organism

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38

Tissue

A group of cells specialised for a particular function e.g. connective tissue

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39

Organ

A group of tissues working together for a particular function e.g. heart

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40

Tissue Culture

The growth of cells in a sterile nutrient medium

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41

Prokaryotic

Do not have a membrane bound nucleus or membrane bound organelles

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42

Eukaryotic

Have a membrane bound nucleus and membrane bound organelles

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43

Diffusion

The movement of a substance from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration along a concentration gradient

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44

Osmosis

Is the movement of water molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration across a selectively permeable membrane

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45

Active Transport

The movement of a substance from an area of low concentration to an area of high concentration against a concentration gradient . It requires ATP ( energy )

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46

Turgor

The pressure of the cell contents against the cell wall

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47

Plasmolysis

The shrinkage of a plant cell due to the loss of water by osmosis

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48

Selectively Permeable

Only allows some substance to pass through the cells membranes

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49

Substrate

Substances on which an enzyme acts

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50

Enzyme

A biological catalyst which is made of protein

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51

Denaturation

The change in the structure of the active site preventing the enzyme from bonding with a specific substrate

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52

Immobilised Enzymes

Enzymes that are fixed in an inert material

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53

Metabolism

The sum of all the chemical reactions in a living organism

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54

Optimum Activity

Enzymes working at its most efficient and best rate

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55

Specific

Each enzyme only acts on a particular substrate

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56

Anabolism

When small molecules are built into larger molecules using energy e.g. Photosynthesis

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57

Catabolism

When big molecules are broken down into smaller molecules releasing energy e.g. Respiration

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58

Cell Continuity

The ability of cells to divide and survive

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59

Somatic Cells

All the normal body cells that are not gametes

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60

Cancer

When normal cells lose control of the rate and number of mitotic divisions

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61

Cleavage Furrow

Is the separation of two identical nuclei during mitosis to form one cell each

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62

Alleles

Alternative form of a gene e.g. T and t

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63

Chromosome

A thread like structure made up of DNA and proteins containing genes , found in the nucleus

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Dominant

The gene that is expressed in the phenotype of the heterozygous condition e.q. Tt , T is dominant

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65

Recessive

The gene that is masked in the phenotype by the dominant allele e.g. Tt , t is recessive

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66

Fertilisation

The fusion of two haploid gametes to form a diploid zygote

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67

Gamete

A haploid sex cell capable of fusion

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68

Genes

Unit of heredity made up of DNA that codes for one trait

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69

Genotype

The genetic makeup of an organism

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70

Heterozygous

When two different alleles of a gene control the same trait e.g. Tt

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71

Homozygous

When two identical alleles control the same trait e.g. TT

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72

Mitosis

Cell division where two cells are produced each with the same number of chromosomes

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Incomplete Dominance

When neither allele is completely expressed in the phenotype of the heterozygous condition e.g. Roan breed of cattle

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74

Phenotype

The physical appearance of an organism

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75

Meiosis

Cell division which produces 4 cells . Each cell has half the number of chromosomes as the parent cell

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76

Homologous Chromosomes

Pairs of chromosomes that contain genes that control the same characteristics

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Sex Chromosomes

A pair of chromosomes that determine the sex of the individual e.g. XX = female or XY = male in humans

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78

Sex Linkage

When genes are carried on the sex chromosomes ( X or Y ) e.g. haemophilia

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79

Linkage

When genes are present on the same chromosome

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80

Autosomes

The 22 pairs of chromosomes that are not sex linked

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81

Mendel's Law of Segregation

Traits are controlled by a pair of factors . Only one of any pair can enter a gamete

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82

Mendel's Law of Independent Assortment

When gametes are formed , either a pair of alleles can enter a gamete with either of another pair

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83

DNA Profiling

The examination of a sample of DNA for a pattern or band to compare

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84

Non - coding DNA

Does not carry the information to make a protein

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85

Genetic Engineering

Them manipulation and alteration of genes or genotype to give valuable traits to the organism

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86

Genetic Screening

Testing for the presence or absence of genes

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87

Evolution

Inheritable change within a species overtime in response to the change of their environment and by natural selection

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88

Mutation

A change in the DNA that alters the genetic code

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89

Species

A group of organisms capable of interbreeding to produce fertile offspring

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90

Variation

Differences within a population or species

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91

Heredity

Genetic inheritance from parents to offspring

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92

Complimentary base pairs

Each base has a corresponding base / pair e.g. Cytosine and Guanine are complimentary pairs

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93

Translation

Translating the genetic code of mRNA in the cytoplasm to make a specific sequence of amino acids

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94

Transcription

Transferring the genetic code from DNA to mRNA in the nucleus

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95

DNA Deoxyribonucleic Acid )

Located in the nucleus and makes up genes and chromosomes . Forms a double helix and its base sequence forms the genetic code

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96

Bioprocessing

Using microorganisms to form single celled protein

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97

Binary Fission

The reproduction of bacteria asexually . Two genetically identical cells are produced

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98

Plasmid

A loop of bacteria within a bacterium which can code for antibiotic resistance

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99

Endospore

Produced by bacteria when under unfavourable conditions as a survival method

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100

Chemosynthetic

Use the energy released from chemical reactions to make food e.g. rhizobium

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