Exam 2

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cognitive-emotional theories of development

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cognitive-emotional theories of development

emphasize the role of cognitive processes and individual interpretations in shaping emotions

suggest that our emotions are not solely based on external events but are heavily influenced by how we perceive, interpret, and evaluate those events

Lewis & Lewis

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ecological/contextual theories of development

emphasize the importance of the environment, context, and social interactions in shaping an individual's emotions and emotional development

propose that emotions are influenced by the broader ecological and social contexts in which individuals live

Brofenbrenner and Lerner

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functionalist theories of development

focus on the adaptive and functional aspects of emotions

emotions have evolved to serve specific purposes or functions that aid an individual's survival and well-being

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differential emotion theories of development

emphasize that emotions are not just simple, reflexive reactions but rather complex, organized responses that serve adaptive functions

set of 6 basic or primary emotions that serve as the foundation for the wide range of human emotions

Izard, Tomkins

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psychodynamic theories of development

emphasize the role of unconscious processes, inner conflicts, and the influence of early experiences in shaping an individual's development

stage theories

Freud, Erikson

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organizational theories of development

emphasizes the idea that development occurs through a series of organized, interrelated stages and processes

early caregiving experiences and attachment patterns can have long-lasting effects on an individual's emotional and social development throughout their life

Sroufe

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developmental theoretical approaches

  • Psychodynamic (Freud, Erikson)  

  • Organizational (Emde, Sroufe)  

  • Differential emotions (Tomkins, Izard)  

  • Functionalism (Camras, Campos, K Barrett, Frijda)  

  • Cognition-emotion fusion (Micheal Lewis, Marc Lewis)  

  • Ecological/contextual (Brofenbrenner, Lerner)  

PFCOED

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psychodynamic developmental theories/theorists

Freud’s theory & Erikson’s stage theory

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Freud’s psychodynamic theory of emotion

  • there is a dynamic tension between the id and the superego

  • emotions affect body and mind over long term 

  • popularized idea that childhood experience shapes adult emotional behaviour 

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psychodynamic Freudian stages

  • 0-1 - oral

  • 1-3 - anal

  • 3-6 - phallic

  • 6-12 - latency

  • 12-20 - early genital

  • 20-40 - genital

  • 40-65 - genital

  • 65+ - genital

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stages of Erikson’s stage theory

  • 0-1: trust vs mistrust

  • 1-3: autonomy vs shame/doubt

  • 3-6: initiative vs guilt

  • 6-12: industry vs inferiority

  • 12-20: identity vs role confusion

  • 20-40: intamacy vs isolation

  • 40-65: generativity vs stagnation

  • 65+: ego integrity vs despair

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social learning theory

idea that experience reinforces or punishes behaviours (emotions, thoughts, actions)

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organizational developmental theories/theorists

  • Sroufe

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Sroufe’s organizational approach

  • each emotion begins as a physiological prototype and differentiate into “precursors” of emotions

  • then eventually emerge as emotions by end of first year (due to cognitive developments) 

  • all emotions are expression of “tension” 

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stages of Sroufe’s organizational approach

0-3 months - psychological regulation

3-6 months - management of tension

6-12 months - establishing an effect attachment relationship

12-18 months - exploration and mastery

18-30 months - individuation (autonomy)

30-54 months - management of impulses, sex-role identification, peer relations

6-11 years - consolidating self concept, loyal friendships, effective same-sex peer group functioning, real-word competence

adolesence - personal identity, mixed gender relationships, intimacy

<p>0-3 months - psychological regulation </p><p>3-6 months - management of tension </p><p>6-12 months - establishing an effect attachment relationship</p><p>12-18 months - exploration and mastery </p><p>18-30 months - individuation (autonomy) </p><p>30-54 months - management of impulses, sex-role identification, peer relations </p><p>6-11 years - consolidating self concept, loyal friendships, effective same-sex peer group functioning, real-word competence </p><p>adolesence - personal identity, mixed gender relationships, intimacy </p>
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developmental differential emotion theory/theorists

  • associated with Izard

  • 10 fundamental emotions present at birth

    • Anger, contempt, disgust, distress, fear, guilt, interest, joy, shame, surprise 

  • emotions do not manifest until mature or adaptive 

  • develop in parallel with cognition

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developmental functionalism theory/theorists

associated with Joe Campos and Karen Barrett

emotions

  • function to regulate social and interpersonal behaviour through their expressive components

  • regulate the flow of information and the determination of response to it

  • regulate behaviour through innate prewired communication process

relations between a goal and perception of proximity to it

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emotions and their goals in functionalism theory

knowt flashcard image
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function of guilt (functionalism theory)

enocouragement of moral behavior

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function of shame (functionalism theory)

maintainance of social standards

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function of interest (functionalism theory)

communication of willingness to enter a relationship

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function of fear (functionalism theory)

survival, pain avoidance, maintaining self-esteem

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function of sadness (functionalism theory)

conserving energy; nurturance from others

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function of anger (functionalism theory)

restoring progress toward goal

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function of joy (functionalism theory)

reinforcement of succesful strategy

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developmental cognition-emotion fusions theories/theorists

associated with Lewis and Lewis

  • Michael Lewis: development of self 

  • Marc Lewis: cognition & emotion inseparable (emotions are emergent)

cognitive development drives emergence of emotions 

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developmental ecological theories/theorists

Brofenbrenner’s ecological model

Lerner’s developmental contextualism

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Brofenbrenner’s ecological model

ecological model suggesting that an individual’s development is influenced by a series of interconnected environmental systems, ranging from the immediate surroundings (e.g., family) to broad societal structures (e.g., culture)

<p>ecological model suggesting that an individual’s development is influenced by a series of interconnected environmental systems, ranging from the immediate surroundings (e.g., family) to broad societal structures (e.g., culture)</p>
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macrosystem

outer layer of Brofenbrenners ecological model

the values, traditions, and sociocultural characteristics of the broad cultural components that influence a developing child's identity, values, and perceptions

includes economic conditions of society, laws in society, taboos and customs of society, and cultural beliefs

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microsystem

inner layer of Brofenbrenners ecological model

the things that have direct contact with the child in their immediate environment

includes the child’s most immediate relationships and environments (parents, siblings, teachers, classmates)

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exosystem

middle layer of Brofenbrenners ecological model

consists of environmental elements that greatly affect a child's development

include a parent's workplace, mass media, school policy, social support systems, family friends, and local government policy settings

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Lerner’s developmental contextualism

ecological model that states that views human development as inextricably and reciprocally linked to the multiple contexts of individuals’ lives

<p>ecological model that states that views human development as inextricably and reciprocally linked to the multiple contexts of individuals’ lives</p>
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motivational expressions in infancy

  • crying

    • nonverbal, often means a core motivational need is unmet

    • also cry when they hear other newborns cry; this is called contagious crying

    • baby’s first way of getting attention and care 

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emotional expressions in infancy

  • smiling and laughing

    • early on - have little or no connection to the social situation

    • 2 months of age - social smiling begins with parents and caregivers

    • help support affective coordination and bonding between babies and their caregivers

  • moro reflex - response to danger

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moro reflex

a sequence in which the infant flings out its arms and spreads its fingers, then contracts quickly into a fetal position with fingers bent 

described as an infant startle, and the second part of it does resemble the adult startle response 

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how emotions develop generally

  • physical maturation

  • cognitive maturation

  • social interaction

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emotional development: physical maturation

  • immature vision does not limit their emotions, but it does limit their ability to respond to visual stimuli

    • being able to see = having the capacity to experience emotional events

  • developing abilities to crawl and walk introduce new situations with implications for emotion 

  • increasing motor maturation also enables the infant to express emotions more clearly

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emotional development: cognitive maturation

  • appraisal requires cognitive abilities that develop across the early months and years of life, rather than being present at birth

  • self-concept develops late in the second year of life

    • they also begin to show signs of embarrassment, shame, and guilt, all of which require seeing yourself through other people’s eyes and/or comparing yourself to their expectations

  • begin to develop theory of mind, the understanding that other people have minds too and that some people, including yourself, might know something that other people don’t know 

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emotional development: social interaction

  • children and their parents begin to synchronize their attention to objects, and their emotional responses to them, late in the first year of life

  • first, infants just respond to the parent’s emotions (primary intersubjectivity)

  • but later they notice what caused the parent’s reaction and then adjust their own reaction to that object or event (secondary intersubjectivity)

  • begin to social reference  

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importance of language/nonverbal expression in emotional development

  • without emotion vocabulary and nonverbal expression, we have no way of knowing specifically what a child is feeling

  • becomes easier to understand what emotion a child is feeling once the necessary vocabulary is in place

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ideas for how children develop their emotion vocabulary

  • some propose that children learn emotion concepts and vocabulary when adults say things such as, “I’m sorry you’re feeling sad,” or “that person is angry,” labeling the emotion and using it to describe the child’s or another person’s experience

  • others suggest that children pick up on statistical patterns in the emotional situations, expressions, and actions of the people around them, and form specific emotion concepts (such as happiness and fear) on their own, attaching words to those concepts later on 

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when do children begin to recognize and respond appropriately to emotions expressed by other people

three years of age

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when do early signs of emotional self-regulation emerge

can be seen in the second year of life 

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totipotent

how early cells are

the ability to be absolutely and and every cell

later cells differentiate towards specific function

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infancy development is considered the ___ year

first

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development of emotion differentiation

process by which emotions specify and transform over infancy

progress from undifferentiated to differentiated 

distress → anger, sadness, fear

<p>process by which emotions specify and transform over infancy</p><p><span>progress from undifferentiated to&nbsp;differentiated</span><span style="font-family: Calibri, sans-serif; color: windowtext">&nbsp;</span></p><p><span style="font-family: Calibri, sans-serif; color: windowtext">distress → anger, sadness, fear</span></p>
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development @ 0-1 months: organizational approach

physiological regulation

distress due to restraint/discomfort, startle/pain

obligatory attention

endogenous smile

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development @ 0-1 months: stage theory (Erikson)

trust vs mistrust

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development @ 0-1 months: cognitive emotional perspective (Lewis)

undifferentiated sense of self

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development @ 0-1 months: functionalist perspective (Campos)

simple goal blockage

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development @ 0-1 months: stage theory (PIAGET)

reflex activity

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development @ 0-1 months: constructivist perspective (LF Barrett)

affect: arousal and violence

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development @ 1-3 months: organizational approach (Sroufe)

coordinating attention and activity

reliable (exogenous) social smile

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development @ 1-3 months: stage theory (Erikson)

trust vs mistrust

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development @ 1-3 months: cognitive emotional perspective (Lewis)

joy, disgust, and sadness emerge

possibly anger

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development @ 1-3 months: functionalist perspective (Campos)

simple goal blockage

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development @ 1-3 months: stage theory (PIAGET)

primary circular reactions

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development @ 1-3 months: constructivst perspective (LF Barrett)

affect: arousal and valence

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developmental onsets @ 6-9 months

social engagement

discriminate familiars from strangers

peakaboo and humor (violated predictions)

anger, fear, sadness

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developmental onsets @ 9-12 months

seperation anxiety and stranger anxiety

crawl-to-walk: travel broadens the mind

mama and dada

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key development in the first year

goals and regulation

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all development in the first year is guided by….

social interactions

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endogenous smile

early smiling system

a spontaneous or reflexive smile that is observed when an infant, early in life, is in a state of REM sleep

characterized by a simple turning up of the corners of the mouth, such smiles are seen from birth and are not elicited by social stimulation

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exogenous smile

smile that is triggered by external stimuli; social smile

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Harry Harlow’s ideas on attachment

showed that infant monkeys looked for comfort in the fluffy surrogate mother, even if that surrogate mother never provided food

allowed researchers to conclude that infants feel an attachment toward their caregiver

mother as a “secure base”

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what did Bowlby and Ainsworth do

developed attachment theory

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Bowlby and Ainsworth ideas about attachment

attachment styles that children form based on their early interactions with caregivers form a continuum of emotion regulation

developed attachment categories

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anxious avoidant attachment - infant/toddler reaction to seperation

some exploration but does not care about observer

distressed when caregiver departs

avoids mom upon return

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anxious avoidant attachment - caregiver characteristics

consistently disengaged

needs not met

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secure attachment - infant/toddler reaction to seperation

explores freely when mom is present

engage with observer

upset when mom departs

happy when she returns

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secure attachment - caregiver characteristics

engaged

needs met

clear contingencies

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anxious-resistant/ambivalent attachment - infant/toddler reaction

anxious about exploration and observer

distressed when caregiver departs

ambivalent; wants to be close but is resentful

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anxious-resistant/ambivalent attachment - caregiver characteristics

engaged, but on caregivers terms (inconsistent)

needs sometimes met

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disorganized attachment - infant/toddler reaction

erratic and unpredictable

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disorganized attachment - caregiver characteristics

erratic and unpredictable

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issues with attachment

  • there are many different attachment relationships

  • individuals may change categories - one study found that on 29% of people retained the same classification across all the time points

  • dependent on cultural context

  • may be mistaken with temperament

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attachment across development

  • relationships at any age involve attachment

  • individual differences get more complex but still just as important

  • reflects child’s expectation about social world

  • good relationships = good physical and mental health 

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when does attachment emerge

six to nine months of age

infants develop the capacity to form more intense and selective emotional bonds with a few special people

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Bridges (1932) development of emotional differentiation

proposed that emotions begin undifferentiated with one major “emotion” - excitement

further gets broken down and differentiated into a greater number of emotions (e.g. excitement → distress → fear, sadness, anger, disgust)

(e.g. excitement → delight → elation and affection)

<p>proposed that emotions begin undifferentiated with one major “emotion” - excitement </p><p>further gets broken down and differentiated into a greater number of emotions (e.g. excitement → distress → fear, sadness, anger, disgust)</p><p>(e.g. excitement → delight → elation and affection)</p>
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mimicry occurs at around…

0-1 months

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facial recognition and preference and distinguishing facial affect occurs around…

1-3 months

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attachment definition

a long-lasting emotional bond to a regular caregiver, producing a desire to be near that person (and distress when separated), a tendency to turn to that person when threatened, and a sense of being supported in exploring new thing

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three main behavioral manifestations of attachment

  • proximity seeking

  • safe haven

  • secure base

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proximity seeking

behavioral manifestation of attachment

producing a desire to be near the person/caregiver/attachment  

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safe haven

behavioral manifestation of attachment

an instinct to turn to that person/caregiver/attachment when threatened

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secure base

behavioral manifestation of attachment

a sense of security and confidence in exploring new things 

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strange situation

a research procedure for studying attachment in which a child is repeatedly separated from and reunited with the attachment figure

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what is the relationship between an infant’s developing motor skills and attachment behavior?

between 6 and 9 months, most babies learn to crawl, and they begin their rush to explore the world

new skill opens doors to all sorts of new experiences including, unfortunately, getting lost, tumbling down the stairs, touching something sharp etc…

the attachment system helps newly mobile babies balance these two competing needs (the thrill of exploration and the risk of getting into serious trouble)

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behavioral mechanisms of parent-infant attachment formation

  • behavioral synchrony

  • matching facial expressions

  • turn-taking with vocalizations

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biological mechanisms of parent-infant attachment formation

  • strong evidence suggests that oxytocin is a biological mechanism for bonding between infants and their caregivers

    • brain uses OT as a neurotransmitter to facilitate maternal behaviors

    • skin-to-skin touch releases oxytocin, which in turn facilitates attachment and bonding

  • endorphins

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1987 definition of temperament

consists of relatively consistent, basic dispositions inherent in the person that underlie and modulate the expression of activity, reactivity, emotionality, and sociability.

major elements are present early in life, and those elements are likely to be strongly influenced by biological factors.

as development proceeds, the expression of it increasingly becomes more influenced by experience and context

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new perspectives on temperament

  1. not all temperament traits are stable early in life, traits become more consistent with age

  2. affective and cognitive processing are highly integrated systems and that, therefore, some aspects of temperament—such as attention and executive control—involve individual differences in domains traditionally considered more cognitive in nature

  3. temperament should no longer be viewed as biologically derived at birth and later shaped by experience; rather, it should be viewed as the result of biological and environmental factors working together throughout development

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further directions for the nature of temperament

  • how is temperament structured

  • what is the relation between temperament and personality traits

  • how do temperament traits and context interact to predict behavior in specific situations

  • how do temperament and the environment interact to shape developmental outcomes over time

  • how are changes in temperament related to biological and psychological processes?

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genetics and temperament is mainly an _____ perspective

essentialist

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what is temperament

stable, early appearing individual differences in behavioral tendencies that have a constitutional (consistent/essentialist) basis

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what are Thomas & Chess’s temperament indicators

behavioral domains/dimesions

indicators of one’s temperament

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Thomas & Chess’s NINE temperament indicators

  • activity

  • rhythmicity

  • approach-withdrawal

  • mood

  • intensity

  • adaptability

  • distractibility

  • persistence of attention

  • threshold

ADAPT ARMI

<ul><li><p>activity </p></li><li><p>rhythmicity</p></li><li><p>approach-withdrawal </p></li><li><p>mood </p></li><li><p>intensity </p></li><li><p>adaptability </p></li><li><p>distractibility </p></li><li><p>persistence of attention </p></li><li><p>threshold </p></li></ul><p>ADAPT ARMI</p>
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what did Rothbart do to Thomas & Chess’s temperament indicators

consolidated them to make them better and more concise

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Rothbart SIX temperament indicators

  • activity

  • smiling and laughter

  • fear

  • soothability

  • distress to limitation

  • undisturbed persistence

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what did Buss & Plomin do do Rothbart’s revised temperament indicators

FURTHER consolidated it into 3 indictaors

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