Systemic Physiology

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Physiology

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113 Terms

1

Physiology

is the study of normal function within living creatures.

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The study of physiology traces its roots back

Ancient India and Egypt

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Hippocrates

the famous “father of medicine” – around 420 BC. Hippocrates coined the theory of the four humors

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Four Humors

1. Black bile

2. Phlegm

3. Blood

4. Yellow bile

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Galen

Founder of Experimental Physiology

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Jean Fernel

First introduced the term Physiology meaning “ study of nature, origins ”

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William Harvey

“ An Anatomical Dissertation Upon the Movement of the Heart and Blood in Animals”

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Joseph Lister

Antiseptics

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Ivan Pavlov

Conditioned physiological responses in dogs

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August Krogh

blood flow is regulated in capillaries

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Andrew Huxley and Alan Hodgkin

Ionic Mechanism

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Andrew Huxley and Hugh Huxley

Discovered sliding filament in skeletal muscle

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Branches of Physiology

  • Cell Physiology

  • Systemic Physiology

  • Evolutionary Physiology

  • Defense Physiology

  • Exercise Physiology

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Cell Physiology

studying the way cells work and interact; cell physiology mostly concentrates on membrane transport and neuron transmission.

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Systemic Physiology

this focuses on the computational and mathematical modeling of complex biological systems.

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Evolutionary Physiology

studying the way systems, or parts of systems, have adapted and changed over multiple generations

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Defense Physiology

changes that occur as a reaction to a potential threat, such as preparation for the fight-or-flight response

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Exercise Physiology

as the name suggests, this is the study of the physiology of physical exercise. This includes research into bioenergetics, biochemistry, cardiopulmonary function, biomechanics, hematology, skeletal muscle physiology, neuroendocrine function, and nervous system function.

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Biological Systems

  • Circulatory System

  • Digestive/ Excretory System

  • Endocrine System

  • Immune System

  • Integumentary System

  • Musculoskeletal system

  • Nervous System

  • Renal/Urinary system

  • Reproductive System

  • Respiratory System

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Circulatory System

including the heart, the blood vessels, properties of the blood, and how circulation works in sickness and health

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Digestive/ Excretory System

charting the movement of solids from the mouth to the anus; this includes study of the spleen, liver, and pancreas, the conversion of food into fuel and its final exit from the body.

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Endocrine System

the study of endocrine hormones that carry signals throughout the organism, helping it to respond in concert. The principal endocrine glands – the pituitary, thyroid, adrenals, pancreas, parathyroids, and gonads – are a major focus, but nearly all organs release endocrine hormones.

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Immune System

the body’s natural defense system is comprised of white blood cells, the thymus, and lymph systems. A complex array of receptors and molecules combine to protect the host from attacks by pathogens. Molecules such as antibodies and cytokines feature heavily

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Integumentary System

the skin, hair, nails, sweat glands, and sebaceous glands (secreting an oily or waxy substance).

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Musculoskeletal System

the skeleton and muscles, tendons, ligaments, and cartilage. Bone marrow – where red blood cells are made – and how bones store calcium and phosphate are included.

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Nervous System

the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) and the peripheral nervous system. Study of the nervous system includes research into the senses, memory, emotion, movement, and though

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Renal/ Urinary System

including the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra, this system removes water from the blood, produces urine, and carries away waste

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Reproductive System

consisting of the gonads and the sex organs

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Respiratory System

consisting of the nose, nasopharynx, trachea, and lungs. This system brings in oxygen and expels carbon dioxide and water.

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Major Functions of the Urinary System

• Excretion of waste products.

• Maintenance of homeostasis.

• Detoxifying harmful substances in the body.

• Maintenance of proper water levels, vitamin and mineral levels, and acid-base and electrolyte levels

• Interaction with the respiratory and the circulatory systems, to help stabilize blood oxygen and carbon dioxide levels.

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Urinary System consists of

  • 2 kidneys

  • 2 ureters

  • urinary bladder

  • urethra

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Ureters

Pair of thin muscular tubes that transport urine (kidneys to bladder)

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Urethra

Small muscular tube (urine out of the body)

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Urinary Bladder

A hollow, collapsible, muscular sac that serves as temporary storage facility for urine. (Located in pelvic cavity)

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Peritoneal folds

Holds the bladder in place

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Kidneys

Paired reddish-brown organs

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37

Most Animals

Bean-shaped

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Horse

Heart-shaped in right kidney

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Ox

lobated

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Kidney

bodys main purification system

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Nephron

Structural Unit of Kidney

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Average number of nephrons

1 million

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Renal papillae are fused in

ruminants (equine, bovine, caprine)

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Lacks external divisions into lobes

Porcine

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Capsule

Protective Layer

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Cortex

dark red outermost layer of the kidney containing the renal corpuscles and convoluted tubules of the nephrons.

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Medulla

Slightly paler than the cortex and it may be possible to see the triangular shaped pyramids. Contains the collecting duct and loop of henle

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Pelvis

basin-shaped and made of fibrous connective tissue

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Arcuate Artery

gives off a number of interlobular arteries that extend into the cortex and in turn give rise to the afferent arterioles

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Afferent arteriole

Branches repeatedly to form a tuffed capillary network called the glomerulus.

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Two structure dominate the internal anatomy of the kidney

  1. Renal medulla

  2. Renal Cortex

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Renal medulla

A deep reddish brown are called the renal medulla

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Renal Cortex

Superficial pinkish area

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Two zones of the renal cortex

  1. outer cortical zone

  2. inner juxtamedullary zone

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Renal Lobe

Consists of one renal pyramid with its surrounding renal cortex

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Renal Medulla

made up of coned-shaped structures called renal pyramids

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Micturition

Expulsion of urine from the bladder

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Three processes involved in urine formation:

  1. glomerular filtration

  2. tubular reabsorption

  3. tubular secretion

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Glomerular Capsule

a cup-shaped structure enclosing a network of blood capillaries called the glomerulus.

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Proximal Convoluted Tubule

a long, twisted tube leading from the neck of the capsule and lying in the renal cortex

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Loop of henle

a U-shaped part of the tube leading from the proximal convoluted tubule and dipping down into the renal medulla

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Distal Convoluted Tubule

short but less twisted part of the tube than the proximal convoluted tubule.

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Collecting Duct

– each duct receives urine from several nephrons and conducts it through the pyramids into the renal pelvis. The ducts are lined in columnar epithelium

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Renal Tubule

receives the glomerular filtrate

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Urea

the chief nitrogenous end product of protein metabolism and is excreted by the kidneys in the urine of mammals.

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Main Waste Products that are removed by urine

  • Urea

  • Creatinine

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Uremia is a result of:

  • Renal Failure

  • Increase urea production

  • Decreased elimination of urea

  • Dehydration

  • Chronic infection of the kidney

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Symptoms of uremia

  • lethargy

  • depression

  • nausea

  • vomiting

  • deep breathing

  • dizziness

  • coma

  • convulsions

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Uremia Treatment

  • Dialysis

  • Hemodialysis

  • Peritoneal Dialysis

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Dialysis

(a procedure to clean the blood) is the most common treatment for uremia. There are two kinds of dialysis

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Hemodialysis

uses a machine to filter blood outside the body.

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Peritoneal Dialysis

uses the lining of your belly and a special fluid to filter blood.

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Azot

means “nitrogen”

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Emia

means “blood condition”

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Azotemia is characterized by

Elevation in BUN and creatinine levels

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Azotemia

Too much nitrogen in the blood

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Uremia

Too much urea in the blood, “urine in the blood”

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Urea nitrogen

waste product that your kidneys remove from your blood

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Higher than normal BUN levels means

kidneys arent functioning well

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Low urea levels is a sign of

dehydration or malnutrition

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Diuresis

Increased urine formation

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Polyuria

Increased urine excretion

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Oliguria

reduced urine excretion

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Anuria

Complete cessation of urine formation

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Dysuria

Difficult or painful micturition

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Stranguria

slow dropwise painful discharge of urine caused by spasm of urethra and bladder

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Creatinine

waste product produced in the muscle and dietary protein

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Urea

waste product formed in the liver as proteins is broken down

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Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR)

Estimates how well your kidneys are filtering blood

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Measurement of creatinine

accurate estimation of how well the kidney filtration processes are working.

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BUN, or blood urea nitrogen test

provide important information about your kidney function.

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High BUN levels can cause:

This may lead to serious health problems, including high blood pressure, anemia, and heart disease

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Normal BUN levels for dogs

7-26 mg/dl

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Normal BUN levels for cats

14-36 mg/dl

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Normal creatinine levels for dogs

0.5-1.6 mg/dl

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Normal creatinine levels for cats

0.6-2.4 mg/dl

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Symptoms of later stage of kidney diseases

  • needing to pee more than usual

  • itching

  • fatigue

  • swelling in legs,feet, ankles

  • muscle cramps

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Renal clearance

the measurement of the kidney’s ability to remove substances from the plasma

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Clearance measurements are used to determine:

➢ Renal Blood Flow (RBF)

➢ Renal Plasma Flow (RPF)

➢ Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR)

➢ Filtration Fraction (FF)

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100

Glomerular Filtration Rate

a test used to check how well the kidneys are working. . It estimates how much blood passes through the glomeruli each minute.

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