Advanced History Final

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Monasteries

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101 Terms

1

Monasteries

Building occupied by a community of monks living under religious vows.

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2

Secular

Concerned with worldly power rather than spiritual

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3

Serf

an agricultural laborer bound under the feudal system to work on his lord's estate.

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4

Tithe

A family's payment of one-tenth of its income to a church

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5

Sacraments

important religious ceremonies

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6

Lay Investiture

the appointment of religious officials by kings or nobles

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7

Gothic

A style of architecture with pointy tops meant to draw your eyes to god

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8

Holy Land

Jerusalem and parts of the surrounding area where Jesus lived and taught

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9

three-field system

a system of farming developed in medieval Europe, in which farm land was divided into three fields of equal size and each of these was successively planted with a winter crop, planted with a spring crop, and left unplanted.

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10

Humanism

An intellectual movement that focused on human potential and achievements

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11

Patrons

People who financially supported artists

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12

Vernacular

Everyday language of ordinary people

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13

Skepticism

A philosophy which suggests that nothing can ever be known for certain.

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14

Reformation

A religious movement of the 16th century that began as an attempt to reform the Roman Catholic Church and resulted in the creation of Protestant churches.

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15

Indulgences

Selling of forgiveness by the Catholic Church. It was common practice when the church needed to raise money. The practice led to the Reformation.

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16

Protestant

Christians who belonged to non-Catholic churches

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17

Colonies

a group of people who leave their native country to form in a new land a settlement subject to, or connected with, the parent nation.

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18

Encomienda

A grant of land made by Spain to a settler in the Americas, including the right to use Native Americans as laborers on it

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19

Columbian Exchange

The exchange of plants, animals, diseases, and technologies between the Americas and the rest of the world following Columbus's voyages.

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20

Capitalism

an economic and political system in which a country's trade and industry are controlled by private owners for profit, rather than by the state.

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21

joint-stock company

A company made up of a group of shareholders. Each shareholder contributes some money to the company and receives some share of the company's profits and debts.

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22

Mercantilism

An economic policy under which nations sought to increase their wealth and power by obtaining large amounts of gold and silver and by selling more goods than they bought

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23

Absolute Monarchy

A government in which the king or queen has absolute power.

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24

Divine Right

Belief that a rulers authority comes directly from god.

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25

Westernization

adoption of western ideas, technology, and culture

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26

Constitutional Monarchy

A King or Queen is the official head of state but power is limited by a constitution.

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27

Charlemagne

He ruled the Frankish Kingdom. He expanded it and made it very powerful, bringing stability no one had seen since the Roman Empire

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28

Charles Martel

He ruled the frankish kingdom and was known as "Major Domo." He defeated muslim raiders at the Battle of Tours.

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29

Benedict

An Italian monk who created rules for monasteries. He wrote an extremely detailed book about the rules monks should follow.

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30

Pope Urban II

Leader of the Roman Catholic Church who asked European Christians to take up arms against Muslims, starting the Crusades

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31

William the Conqueror

duke of Normandy who led the Norman invasion of England and became the first Norman to be King of England

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32

Baldissare Castiglione

  • wrote The Book of the Courtier

  • describes manners, skills, learning, and virtues that a member of the court should have

  • identified how men and women should act

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33

Niccolo Machiavelli

(1469-1527) Wrote The Prince which contained a secular method of ruling a country. "End justifies the means."

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34

Leonardo da Vinci

A well known Italian Renaissance artist, architect, musician, mathemetician, engineer, and scientist. Known for the Mona Lisa.

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35

Cosimo de Medici

A wealthy Florentine and an astute statesman, who brought power back to Florence in 1434 when he ascended to power; controlled the city behind the scenes, He skillfully manipulated the constitution and influencing elections; through his informal, cordial relations with the electoral committee, and was able to keep councilors loyal to him in the Signoria (the governing body of Florence, composed of 8 councilors); as head of the Office of Public Debt, He was the grandfather of Lorenzo the Magnificent

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36

Joan of Arc

French heroine and military leader inspired by religious visions to organize French resistance to the English and to have Charles VII crowned king

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37

Martin Luther

a German monk who became one of the most famous critics of the Roman Catholic Chruch. In 1517, he wrote 95 theses, or statements of belief attacking the church practices.

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38

Henry VIII

(1491-1547) King of England from 1509 to 1547; his desire to annul his marriage led to a conflict with the pope, England's break with the Roman Catholic Church, and its embrace of Protestantism. Henry established the Church of England in 1532.

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39

Elizabeth I

English Queen and politique who united Protestants and Catholics through compromise

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40

Christopher Columbus

He mistakenly discovered the Americas in 1492 while searching for a faster route to India.

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41

Louis XIV

This French king ruled for the longest time ever in Europe. He issued several economic policies and costly wars. He was the prime example of absolutism in France.

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42

Peter the Great

(1672-1725) Russian tsar (r. 1689-1725). He enthusiastically introduced Western languages and technologies to the Russian elite, moving the capital from Moscow to the new city of St. Petersburg.

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43

Oliver Cromwell

English military, political, and religious figure who led the Parliamentarian victory in the English Civil War (1642-1649) and called for the execution of Charles I. As lord protector of England (1653-1658) he ruled as a virtual dictator.

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44

Johann Gutenberg

German printer who was the first in Europe to print using movable type and the first to use a press (1400-1468)

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45

William Shakespeare

(1564 - 1616) English poet and playwright considered one of the greatest writers of the English language; works include Julius Caesar, Macbeth, Romeo and Juliet, and Hamlet.

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46

Charles I

King of England, Scotland, and Ireland (1625-1649). His power struggles with Parliament resulted in the English Civil War (1642-1648) in which he was defeated. He was tried for treason and beheaded in 1649

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47

Hernando Cortez

Conquered the Aztecs and claimed the land for Spain

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48

What effect did Germanic invasions have on the people of Europe?

Europe will fragment into germanic kingdoms; forced to look to local rulers with armies for protection

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49

How were feudalism and manorialism different?

Feudalism - Political structure of Europe (King -> Lord -> Knight -> Serfs)

Manorialism- Economic structures of Europe

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50

What was the significance of the Battle of Tours?

Kept Muslims out of western Europe

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51

How did the manor system promote self-sufficiency?

Everything could be produced on the land, no need for outside trade

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52

What happened in Europe after the fall of the Roman empire in 476 AD?

Fell into chaos and instability with constant invasions from germanic tribes

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53

What was the main source of economic activity in Europe from 500 AD until the Renaissance?

Manors (Agriculture)

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54

What were the expectations for knights under the code of chivalry?

Fight for your lord and lady; Protect the weak and the poor

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55

What are the characteristics of the feudal system and the manor system?

Housing and protection provided by lord in exchange for working the land

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56

The art, literature, and music of this time period generally dealt with what themes?

Religious themes

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57

How did King Clovis contribute to the spread of Christianity?

Spread Christianity throughout Germanic kingdoms/states

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58

What were the effects of the Bubonic plague on European society?

Church had a loss of prestige, loss of serfs leaving manors, and decrease in trade

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59

Why were the crusades considered a turning point in European history?

"Period of transition" from Middle Ages to Renaissance

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60

Why were the beliefs of John Wycliffe and Jan Hus at odds with the Catholic Church?

Bible alone was the only spiritual authority; Church has too much power

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61

What was the reason for the issuing of the Magna Carta in 1215 AD?

Correct the abuse of the English monarch King John. First example of a limited government in the world

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62

What new style of architecture emerged in the late Middle Ages highlighted by the Cathedral at Notre Dame? What spiritual Idea was highlighted by this type of architecture?

Gothic architecture that showed the glory and magnificence of God; Financed by the growth of cities and towns (taxes)

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63

What effects did the Great Famine have on the people of Europe?

Weakened immune system-set the stage for Bubonic plague

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64

How did warfare change during the Hundred Years War between Britain and France?

Archers with longbows, gunpowder weapons, less reliance on knights

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65

What events brought about the Great Schism? (aka Babylonian Captivity)

Philip IV of France tries to tax clergy in France, angering Pope Boniface VIII. Philip convinced the College of Cardinals to choose a French archbishop as pope.

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66

What roles did the Catholic Church play in European society during the Middle Ages?

Social, political, and economic services to help stabilize Europe after the fall of the Roman Empire

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67

What ideas did Niccolo Machiaelli put forth in his book, The Prince?

A ruler must do whatever is politically necessary to maintain power (loved and feared)

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68

What was the significance of the printing press on European society?

Spread new ideas throughout Europe

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69

What were the reasons for the development of the Renaissance in Italy?

Access to trade routes allowed Italian cities to prosper, which began a funding of arts and spread of ideas

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70

What could you classify the Renaissance as a rebirth of?

Art and literature

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71

For what reasons did authors begin to write in the vernacular during this time?

Made their work more accessible in their areas; Most literature was in Latin previously, which hurt locals being able to read and understand

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72

What was the overall effect of the Renaissance on the people of Europe?

Affected the upper class only

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73

What was the major difference between the Italian Renaissance and the Northern Renaissance?

Northern Renaissance focused more on reforming society on Judeo-Christian values. Christianity is the heart of the Northern Renaissance

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74

What artistic styles began to emerge during the Renaissance?

Perspective (3D)

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75

What were the characteristics of the Renaissance?

Revival of Roman and Greek ideas, Secular was emphasized over the spiritual, humanism

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76

What types of abuses were common in the Catholic Church in the time period leading up to the Reformation?

Simony, faith and good works needed for salvation, corrupt clergy, illiterate clergy

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77

What were the major beliefs of Martin Luther when he wrote the 95 Theses?

Salvation was based on faith alone

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78

What was the major belief of John Calvin's predestination?

God has chosen people who were to be saved at the beginning of time (the Elect)

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79

What were the beliefs of the Catholic Church that were outlined in the Catholic Reformation (Counter-Reformation) which were discussed at the Council of Trent?

Salvation required faith and good works, indulgences were accepted, list of Prohibited books, anyone who taught anything different than Catholic way was a heretic, 7 sacraments including transubstantiation - (Blood and body of Christ in the bread and wine)

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80

What were the reasons for Henry VIII breaking with the Catholic Church to set up the Church of England?

Become the head of a new church established in England

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81

What were the common beliefs of Henry VIII and Martin Luther?

Neither wanted to break away from Catholicism at beginning

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82

Why did many princes in the Holy Roman Empire embrace Lutheranism?

Religious reasons, political reasons - could confiscated church property; Wouldn't have to pay taxes to Rome

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83

What factors led to Martin Luther being able to survive excommunication and being declared an outlaw by Holy Roman Emperor Charles V?

German princes seeking religious and political reforms; Printing press

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84

What was outlined in the Peace of Augsburg?

Each prince within the Holy Roman Empire would decide the religion of their territory - either Lutheran or Catholic (No Calvinism)

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85

Why did Spain and Portugal sign the Treaty of Tordesillas?

To solve territorial disputes between the 2 countries due to colonies in Africa and the Americas

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86

What effects did the Columbian Exchange have on natives and Europeans?

New foods brought into Europe, new wealth (gold and silver), Increase in population

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87

According to the theory of mercantilism, what was the purpose of the colonies?

To benefit the mother country (gold, silver, resources, wealth back to mother country)

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88

What was the reason for the encomienda policy used by the Spanish?

Forced labor on the natives

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89

What were the reasons for forming joint-stock companies when it came to exploration?

Limit the risk of investment of new settlements

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90

Which countries established colonies in the new world?

Spain, Britain, France, Netherlands

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91

What reasons did Spain have for increased exploration and colonization of the Americas?

Competition with the Portuguese who were the first to find an all water route to Asia

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92

Which Dominican monk criticized the use of natives in the encomienda policy, and suggested using enslaved Africans instead?

Bartolomé de las Casas

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93

While other European monarchs embraced absolutism, which political body was responsible for keeping the English monarch in check?

Parliament (Legislative branch)

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94

Which monarch is responsible for the term, L'etat, c'est, moi (I am the state)?

Louis XIV (Sun King)

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95

What was the major result of the ending of the Thirty Years' War?

Last of the major wars of religion in Europe, princes in HRE decided between Catholicism, Lutheranism, and Calvinism. Beginnings of the modern nation-state in Europe (HRE states no longer had to obey Holy Roman Emperor)

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96

What were the results of the Glorious Revolution in England?

William and Mary agreed to rule with the consent of Parliament after agreeing to the English Bill of Rights

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97

What was the major goal of absolute monarchs?

To have complete control in their country (Centralize power)

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98

For what reason did many absolute monarchs believe they should have absolute power to rule?

God has given them divine right to rule

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99

How could you describe Oliver Cromwell's leadership in England after the English Civil War?

Puritan dictatorship, Protectorate

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100

What was the overall political effect of the English Civil War?

Increase the power of Parliament as a check on the monarch

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