US History Final

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This book by Jacob Riis presented visual images of living conditions of the poor.

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This book by Jacob Riis presented visual images of living conditions of the poor.

How the Other Half Lives

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applied the concept of survival of the fittest to society; stronger people, businesses, and nations will prosper, while weaker ones will fail.

social darwinism

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the idea that government should a keep "hands off" approach to government regulation

laissez-faire

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2nd-4th generation American Immigrants;blamed immigrants for increases in crime, poverty, and taking jobs

nativists

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Upton Sinclair's book that showed the filth of the meat packing industry; prompted investigation of the meatpacking industry

Upton Sinclair's The Jungle

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Progressive Era movement campaigned for by women who blamed alcohol for crime, poverty, and violence. Led to a rise in organized crime

Prohibition

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Teddy Roosevelt's policy of breaking up trusts; he was known as the trust busting president

trust buster

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introduced in 1913 by the 16th Amendment after President Wilson succeeded in reducing tariffs to make make for the lost revenue.

Graduated Income Tax

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investigated jounralist who exposed corruption by writing about it

Muckrackers

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led to reforms of safety measures, factory inspections, and sanitation standards in New York and in the entire nation

Triangle Shirtwaist Company Fire

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believed that alcohol was responsible for crime, poverty, and violence against women

Prohibition Reformers

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formed by President Roosevelt because he thought President Taft failed to continue his policies of progressive reform.

Bull Moose Party

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formed by Roosevelt to help preserve national resources and control the use of the nations natural resources

US Forest and National Park Service

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extending a country's power and influence, inspired by a sense of nationalism and a feeling of cultural superiority

Imperialism

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triggered by the destruction of the USS Maine; due to yellow journalism, many Americans sympathized with the Cubans, as they saw Spain being an oppressive foreign power and related that to our conflicts we faced with the American Revolution and Britain.

Spanish American War

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stated that the US will intervene in conflicts between European and Latin American countries, added to the Monroe Doctrine

Roosevelt Corollary

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United States naval battleships sent to exert influence on Japan to encourage them to open their ports to trade

Great White Fleet

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led to the establishment of the US naval base at Guantanamo Bay

Platt Agreement

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France, Great Britain, Russia

Allied Powers

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action by Germany that violated the laws of neutrality

German U-Boats (submarines)

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note from Germany proposing and alliance with Mexico

Zimmerman Note

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killed nearly 700,000 Americans between 1918 and 1919

Influenza

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passed by Congress in 1917 and made it illegal to print or publish disloyal criticism of the government

Sedition Act

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proposed by Wilson in his 14 points to ensure another world conflict would not happen again by having all countries join and work together to resolve conflict

League of Nations

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Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Ottoman Empire

Central Powers

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Official US position in regard to the war in Europe in 1914 to stay out of the conflict, remaining isolated

Neutrality

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British fleet's blockade of German ports and transportation routes prompted Germany to use U-Boats and attack all ships without issuing a warning.

Unrestricted Submarine Warfare

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Wilson's plan for a just and lasting global peace after WWI

Fourteen Points

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used by General Pershing to transport forces and reduce the number of ships sunk and troops lost, by sending ships out in groups to provide protection.

Convoy System

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The United States emerged as the economic world power at the end of WWI

Economic World Power

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President Wilson wanted a treaty that stressed openness, fair trade, and fewer weapons but other leaders wanted to punish Germany for starting the war in hopes of peace and create a League of Nations.

Paris Peace Conference

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belief that everyone should share equally in society's wealth; terrified American's after WWI as it is a direct threat to capitalism.

Communism

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payments designed to make up for war damage; at the end of WWI the Treaty of Versailles demanded Germany pay reparations

reparations

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controversial idea of Darwin

evolution

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gave full voting rights to women, provided more opportunities for women

19th Amendment

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main goal was to end discrimination against and mistreatment of African Americans throughout the United States

NAACP

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led to a boom in different industries including the rubber, glass, steel; growth of cities; suburbs; urbanization.

Development of the automobile

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African Americans moved from the South to the North

Great Migration

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did not benefit from the boom economy of the 1920's, not as much food was needed following WWI

Farmers

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allowed Congress to levy taxes based on an individual's income

16th Amendment

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outlawed the production and sale of alcoholic beverages in the US

18th Amendment

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during progressivism campaigned for 8-10 hour workdays, recognition of labor unions, and minimum wage

Labor Unions

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policy of US to stay out of foreign conflicts, Senate returned to this policy when they decided not to join the League of Nations.

Isolationism

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sensational writings used to exaggerate the truth for increased ratings or support. William Hearst & Joseph Pulitzer used this during the Cuban revolt.

Yellow Journalism

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railroad workers, often immigrants, were treated poorly, endured harsh conditions, and frequent accidents.

Railroads

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In 1887 Congress passed the Interstate Commerce Act, making the railroads the first industry subject to Federal regulation.

Interstate Commerce Act

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Campaigned for prohibition, end of child labor, and women's voting rights

Progressive Women Reformers

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The idea that if you have what you need you should help others. Women of the Progressive Era opened settlement house to help educate, clothe, and teach immigrants to help them Americanize.

Social Gospel

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Granted women the right to vote in 1920.

The 19th Amendment

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This suffragists was arrested for "knowingly, wrongfully, and unlawfully" voting in 1872.

Susan B. Anthony

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Nationalism and a sense of cultural superiority

Drives of US Imperialism

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Militarism, Alliances, Imperialism, and Nationalism

MAIN causes of WWI

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The heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne, assassinated by a Serbian nationalist. This was known as the spark that starts WWI.

Archduke Franz-Ferdinand

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A type of combat in WWI in which opposing troops fight from trenches facing each other. Led to a stalemate.

Trench Warfare

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British passenger liner sunk by the Germans after they had signed the Sussex Pledge that said they wouldn't use unrestricted submarine warfare. Killed 128 Americans.

Lusitania

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raised income taxes, sold war bonds, regulated industry, and printed propaganda.

To support war effort the government

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During WWI Russia left the war, signing a peace treaty with the Axis Powers due to the Bolshevik revolt and overthrow of the government.

Russian Revolution

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Wilson's plan for peace after WWI

Fourteen Points

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Peace keeping organization proposed in Wilson's 14 points.

League of Nations

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Made it illegal to print or publish disloyal criticism of the government.

Sedition Act

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After WWI many Americas were tired of conserving and began to spend money. Regardless if they could afford the luxury items they were buying.

Consumerism

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Two Italian born-American Immigrant Anarchists who were put on trial not only for robbery and murder, but also for their beliefs.

Sacco and Vanzetti

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A new way of purchasing in the 1920's where you put a little down and then set up monthly payments to pay off purchase.

Installment Buying

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The underground bars that developed during prohibition where people would go to illegally buy and consume alcohol.

Speakeasies

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Two of the influential African American writers during the Harlem Renaissance that sought to fight prejudice and discrimination based on race.

Claude McKay, Langston Hughes

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A new type of music that grew out of the Harlem Renaissance that blended several different musical forms from the deep south.

Jazz

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Movement of African Americans from the south to north in an effort to find work and escape prejudice and discrimination in the south.

Great Migration

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First woman to fiy across the Atlantic.

Amelia Earhart

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Led to stock investors selling off or dumping their stocks

Concerns with the economy

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Did not share in the boom economy like other groups

Farmers in the 1920's

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The nickname of the date of the date of the stock market crash.

Black Tuesday

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You put 10% down, then borrow the rest to purchase stocks in the stock market.

Buying on Margin

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loose-knit communities of rustic shacks and tents during the Great Depression

Hoovervilles

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The term used to describe the devastation of the Great Plains due to drought

Dust Bowl

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first partnership between private business and the federal government; Hoover's attempt to create jobs during the Great Depression and spur the economy

Hoover Dam

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Hoover's philosophy that the government should stay out of business and the lives of the people.

Dogged Survivalism

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raised tariffs or import taxes, resulted in European countries raising their tariff or import taxes

Smoot-Hawley Tariff

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new legislation guaranteed workers the right to form unions and collectively bargain

New Deal helps organized labor

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The U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) is an independent, federal government agency responsible for protecting investors, maintaining fair and orderly functioning of securities markets, and facilitating capital formation. It was created by Congress in 1934 as the first federal regulator of securities markets.

Securities & Exchange Commission

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an American sociologist and workers-rights advocate who served as the U.S. Secretary of Labor from 1933 to 1945, the longest serving in that position, and the first woman appointed to the U.S. Cabinet

Frances Perkins

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First part of FDR's New Deal. He closed the banks to allow time for Federal government to ensure they were sound before reopening. He wanted to stop back runs.

Bank Holiday

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changed the role of first lady by playing an active role in the government for her husband, writing a column about her day, attacking social problems, and advocating for women's rights.

Eleanor Roosevelt

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Huey Lang, Father Coughlin, and Dr. Townsend

Critics of the New Deal

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the New Deal created more federal regulation of businesses and made the government more involved in peoples everyday lives

Relationship between the government and business

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In order to raise demand and drive up prices the government paid farmers to not plant crops.

New Deal Farming Acts

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Relief, Recovery, Reform

3 main goals of the New Deal

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Created to restore peoples faith in banks

Emergency Banking Act

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struck significant blows to the New Deal

Supreme Court

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photographer of the Great Depression who took photos of the rural poor

Dorothea Lange

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African Americans and Women were gaining increased opportunities

Leadership roles of Mary McCleod Bethune and Frances Perkins

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President Roosevelt's misstep. Tried to pass legislation that would allow him to add 6 supreme court justices that would have helped him get his New Deal plans passed.

Court Packing Plan

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The Japanese surprise attack on the United States. Caused the US to join the war.

Pearl Harbor

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Served in large numbers in the U.S. armed forces and found employment in industrial jobs that had earlier been denied to them

African Americans in WWII

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Peace treated that ended WWI. Many Germans were angry and resented this as they viewed it as too harsh.

Treaty of Versailles

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Effectively played on public discontent and promised to revive German greatness

The Nazi Party

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Crucial goal of Allied Powers. If you control these you control the movement of supplies and resources.

Control of Seas and Shipping Lanes

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This was a crucial win as it changed the balance of power in the Pacific

Battle of Midway

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Would fight to the death. American soldiers feared this more than anything else.

Japanese Fighters in WWII

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final conference after WWII that divided Germany into four sectors

Potsdam Conference

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this was marked by the death of Adolf Hitler

German surrender WWII

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