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what is an opportunity sample?

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1

what is an opportunity sample?

a sample of pps made by selecting people who are most easily available at the time of the study

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2

what are 2 strengths of an opportunity sample?

  1. easiest method

  2. not time consuming

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3

what are 2 weaknesses of an opportunity sample?

  1. biased as sample is drawn from a small part of the target population

  2. tend to be ethnocentric

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4

what is a random sample?

a sample of pps made using a random technique so that every member of target population has an equal chance of being chosen

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5

what is a strength of a random sample?

unbiased as all members have equal chance of being chosen

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6

what are 2 weaknesses of a random sample?

  1. takes more time and effort

  2. may be biased as selected pps may not agree to participate

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7

what is a self-selected sample?

a sample of pps made by asking for volunteers

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8

what are 2 strengths of a self-selected sample?

  1. convenient

  2. pps less likely to drop out

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9

what is a weakness of a self-selected sample?

biased as pps may have more time on their hands, be more motivated etc than the general population (volunteer bias)

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10

what is a snowball sample?

relies on referrals from initial pps to generate extra pps

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11

what is a strength of a snowball sample?

researcher can locate difficult-to-access groups of people

e.g. drug users

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12

what is a weakness of a snowball sample?

not likely to be good cross section of population as it’s friends of friends

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13

what are the 6 ethical issues?

  1. anonymity/confidentiality

  2. deception

  3. informed consent

  4. privacy

  5. right to withdraw

  6. protection from harm

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14

what are the bps code of ethics and conduct (2009)?

  1. respect

  2. competence

  3. responsibility

  4. integrity

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15

what does respect involve (bps)?

  • informed consent

  • confidentiality

  • privacy

  • right to withdraw

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16

what does competence involve (bps)?

awareness of ethics and making ethical decisions

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17

what does responsibility involve (bps)?

  • protection from harm

  • debriefing

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18

what does integrity involve (bps)?

  • avoiding deception

  • addressing misconduct

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19

what are 3 ways of dealing with ethical issues?

  1. debriefing

  2. ethics committee (institutional review board)

  3. presumptive consent (asking ppl if they’d participate in your study)

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20

what is a questionnaire?

list of questions that participants respond to

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21

what are 2 strengths of a questionnaire?

  1. can be easily repeated (high external validity)

  2. pps more likely to reveal confidential info compared to interview

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22

what is a weakness of a questionnaire?

sample may be biased as only people with time to fill questionnaires take questionnaires

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23

what is a closed question?

has a fixed number of possible answers

e.g. yes/no questions

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24

what are 2 strength of using closed questions?

  1. easy to analyse

  2. easy to draw conclusions

    (as closed questions produce quantitative data)

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25

what are 2 weaknesses of using closed questions?

  1. may not permit ppl to express precise feelings (low validity)

  2. oversimplifies reality

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26

what is an open question?

invites respondents to provide their own answers

e.g. how are you?

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27

what are 2 strengths of using open questions?

  1. provides rich detail

  2. respondents aren’t restricted to preconceived categories (high validity)

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28

what are 2 weaknesses of using open questions?

  1. harder to analyse

  2. difficult to draw conclusions

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29

what is a rating scale?

respondents asked to give an assessment of their views using a scale

e.g. on a scale of 1-7…

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30

what are 2 strengths of using a rating scale?

  1. objective way to represent feelings and attitudes

  2. creates quantitative data to easy to analyse

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31

what are 2 weaknesses of using a rating scale?

  1. respondents may avoid end up scales so answers don’t represent true feelings (low validity)

  2. doesn’t provide detailed answers as it produces quantitative data

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32

what are 2 types of rating scales?

  1. likert rating scale

  2. semantic differential rating scale

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33

what is a likert rating scale?

indicates how much respondent agrees or disagrees

e.g. strongly agree, agree etc

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34

what is a semantic differential rating scale?

measures respondent’s attitudes towards something

e.g. fun - - - boring

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35

what is a structured interview?

pre-determined questions asked by an interviewer who doesn’t probe beyond the answer received (but may answer questions)

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36

what are 2 strengths of a structured interview?

  1. easily repeated (high external reliability)

  2. easier to analyse as answers are more predictable

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37

what is a weakness of a structured interview?

interviewer’s expectations may influence the answers the interviewee gives (researcher/interviewer bias)

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38

what is a semi-structured interview?

some questions predetermined but also new questions are developed as interview proceeds

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39

what is an unstructured interview?

no questions are predetermined

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40

what are 2 strengths of a semi-structured/unstructured interview?

  1. more detailed information can be obtained

  2. can access info that may not be revealed by predetermined questions

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41

what are 2 weaknesses of a semi-structured/unstructured interview?

more affected by interviewer bias as interviewer could as leading questions

well-trained interviewer needed which costs more money

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42

what is internal reliability?

whether a measure is consistent within itself

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43

what is external reliability?

whether a measure is consistent over time

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44

what is inter-rater reliability?

consistency between 2 researchers

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45

what is test-retest reliability?

same measure is given to same pps on 2 occasions to see if the same result is obtained

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46

what is split-half method reliability?

measure is split into 2 halves and the scores of the halves are compared

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47

what is internal validity?

whether a measure assesses what it intends to assess

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48

what is external validity?

whether the results can be generalised beyond the particular study

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49

what is ecological validity?

whether the results can be generalised in real-life setting

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50

what is population validity?

whether the results can be generalised to other groups of people other than the sample

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51

what is face validity?

whether the items of a test look like they are assessing what the researcher intended to asses

e.g. questionnaire about aggression should have questions explicitly related to aggression

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52

what is construct validity?

whether the test assesses the underlying concepts

e.g. questionnaire about aggression is assessed by considering various theoretical views (underlying concepts) about aggression

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53

what is concurrent validity?

whether a new test has similar results to s previously validated test on the same topic

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54

what is criterion validity?

the extent that a measure can predict a future behaviour

e.g. iq test score would have high criterion validity if it was positively related to gcse performance

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55

what are structured observational techniques?

systematic procedures in observational research

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56

what is a strength of using structured observational techniques?

what ppl say is often different from what they do, so observations give more realistic data

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57

what are 2 weaknesses of using structured observational techniques?

  1. observer may ‘see’ what they expect to see (observer bias)

  2. observations cannot provide information about what people think/feel

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58

what are behavioural categories?

  • objective methods to separate behaviour

  • categories are listed, each with a code (coding frame)

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59

what is a strength of using behavioural categories?

enables systematic observations to be made so important info isn’t overlooked

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60

what are 2 weaknesses of using behavioural categories?

  • categories may not cover all possible behaviour (low validity)

  • poorly designed coding frame also reduces reliability/validity

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61

what is event sampling?

using a list of behavioural categories and counting every time the behaviours occur in a specified time period

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62

what are 2 strengths of event sampling?

  1. making observing behaviour more manageable as it avoids having to record everything

  2. useful when behaviour being recorded only happens occasionally

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63

what are 2 weaknesses of event sampling?

  1. observer may miss some observations (low validity)

  2. observations may not be representative

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64

what is time sampling?

recording behaviour at regular intervals or taking a sample at different times of the day, week etc

e.g. every 30 seconds for 5 seconds

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65

what are 2 strengths of time sampling?

  1. makes observing behaviour more manageable as it avoids having to record everything

  2. allows for tracking of time-related changes in behaviour

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66

what are 3 weaknesses of time sampling?

  1. observer may miss some observations (low validity)

  2. observations may not be representative

  3. behaviours are inevitably missed as important behaviour may occur outside of interval (low validity)

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67

what is a controlled observation?

some variables are manipulated by the researchers e.g. in a lab (but may use unstructured techniques)

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68

what is a strength of a controlled observation?

controlled environment allows focus on particular aspect on behaviour

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69

what is a weakness of a controlled observation?

environment may feel unnatural and then pps’ behaviour may not be ‘normal’ (low validity)

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70

what is a naturalistic observation?

everything is left as usual; environment unstructured but may use structured techniques

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71

what is a strength of a naturalistic observation?

realistic picture of natural, spontaneous behaviour (high ecological validity)

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72

what are 2 weaknesses of a naturalistic observation

  1. pps may know they’re being observed which alters their behaviour (demand characteristics)

  2. little control of other variables

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73

what is a structured observation?

a system, such as behavioural categories or time sampling, is used to restrict and organise the collection of information

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74

what is a strength of a structure observation?

improves inter-rater reliability as observations can be more consistent

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75

what is a weakness of a structured observation?

observers may ‘see’ or ‘hear’ what they expect to see (observer bias)

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76

what is an unstructured observation?

observer records all relevant behaviour without system

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77

what are 2 strengths of an unstructured observation?

  1. useful when behaviour to be studied is largely unpredictable

  2. useful in initial investigations (pilot study)

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78

what is a weakness of an unstructured observation?

behaviours recorded are often the most eye-catching but may not be most important/relevant

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79

what is a participant observation?

observer is a pp in the behaviour being observed

e.g. being in a bus stop queue and observing behaviour in the queue

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80

what are 2 strengths of a participant observation?

  1. likely to provide special insights to behaviour

  2. able to monitor and record behaviour in closer detail

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81

what are 2 weaknesses of a participant observation?

  1. objectivity reduced (observer bias)

  2. more difficult to record and monitor non-suspiciously if the observer is part of the group being observed

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82

what is a non-participant observation?

observer isn’t a pp in the behaviour being observed

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83

what is a strength of a non-participant observation?

increased objectivity because of psychological/physical distance

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84

what is a weakness of a non-participant observation?

observer may misinterpret communications (reduces validity)

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85

what is a covert observation?

observation made without pp’s knowledge

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86

what is a strength of a covert observation?

pps behave more naturally as they’re not aware of being observed (observer effect)

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87

what is a weakness of a covert observation

raises ethical issues about observing pps without their consent (deception/invasion of privacy)

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88

what is an overt observation?

pps know they’re being observed

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89

what is a strength of an overt observation?

avoids lack of informed consent

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90

what is a weakness of an overt observation?

pps more likely to alter their behaviour (observer effect)

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91

what is a repeated measures design?

each pp takes part in every IV condition

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92

what are 2 strengths of a repeated measures design?

  1. good control over pp variables because same person is tested twice

  2. fewer pps needed than with an independent measures design

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93

what are 3 weaknesses of a repeated measures design?

  1. order/practice effects

  2. pps may guess purpose of experiment

  3. condition A may be easier than condition B

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94

how do you deal with order effects in a repeated measures design?

counterbalancing

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95

what is an independent measures design?

pps are allocated one of 2+ IV groups

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96

what are 2 strengths of an independent measures design?

  1. no order/practice effects

  2. avoids pps guessing aim of experiment

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97

what are 2 weaknesses of an independent measures design?

  1. no control of pp variables

  2. needs more pps than repeated measures design

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98

how do you deal with pp variables in an independent measures design?

random allocated of pps into conditions

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99

what is a matched participants design?

pps who’re similar on key variables are paired

one member of the pair is placed into group A and the other in group B

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100

what are 2 strengths of a matched participants design?

  1. controls for pp variables

  2. avoids order/practice effects

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