AP Human Geography Exam Review

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239 Terms

1

absolute location

The actual space a place occupies on Earth's surface

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2

acculturation

The change that occurs within a culture when it adopts a practice from another culture

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3

agglomeration effects

The cost advantages (external economies) for an individual company gained by locating near similar industries or companies

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4

agribusiness

Commercial agriculture in which large corporations own and operate various steps in the production process with an emphasis on profit

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5

agricultural density

The number of people living in rural areas per unit of agricultural land

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6

alliance

An association among countries for the purpose of mutual defense or trade

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7

animism

The belief that spirits (including ancestral) live within objects such as animals, rivers, rocks, trees, and mountains

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8

antecedent boundary

A boundary placed before the cultural landscape was developed

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9

artifact

Tangible pieces of material culture

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10

assimilation

The process in which immigrants become totally integrated into the host culture

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11

backwash effect

The negative impact to the peripheral region sometimes caused by increased flows of labor and capital into a nearby high-growth region

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12

basic sector

Goods and services produced for individuals outside the urban work area

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13

bid rent curve

The concept that the concentric circles in Burgess's concentric zone model are based on the amount people are willing to pay for land in each zone

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14

biotechnology

The application of scientific techniques to modify and improve plants, animals, and microorganisms to enhance their value

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15

built environment

The material culture of an environment

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16

carrying capacity

The number of people an area can support on a sustained basis

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17

central business district (CBD)

The business area found at the center of every older central city and urban area

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18

central place theory

A theory developed by Walter Christaller that states that cities exist for economic reasons and that people gather in cities to share goods and ideas

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19

centrifugal force

A strong, divisive force, such as religious differences or a weak communication systems, at work in a country

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20

centripetal force

A strong, unifying force, such as a charismatic leader or nationalism, at work in a country

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21

chain migration

The part of a migrant flow (usually relatives and friends) that follows former migrants to an area

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22

channelized migration

Repetitive pattern of migration not linked to family or ethnicity (senior citizens moving to the Sun Belt)

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23

charter group

The first group of settlers to establish a new and lasting culture and society is an area

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24

compact state

A state that is basically round in shape, such as Poland or Bhutan)

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25

colonialism

A system in which a country declares control over a territory or people outside its own boundaries, usually for economic purposes

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26

commodity chain

A chain of activities from the manufacturing to the distribution of a product

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27

concentric zone model

The model of urban land use developed by Burgess which demonstrates the invasion and succession processes that occur as the city grows and expands outward

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28

confederation

A loose association of states organized for the purpose of retaining cohesion, such as the former republic of the USSR

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29

congregation

An ethnic group's grouping together in a specific part of the city to support each other and minimize conflicts with those in the non-ethnic group

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30

consequent boundary

A type of subsequent boundary that is drawn to accommodate existing linguistic, cultural, or religious boundaries

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31

conservation agriculture

A modern method of farming that balances maximum crop yield with sustainable farming methods and protection of the environment

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32

creative destruction

The reinvestment of funds in new, profitable ventures and regions that were once used to fund ventures and regions that are now not as profitable

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33

creole

A simplified mixture of two or more languages that is adopted in areas of cultural diversity

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34

crude birth rate (CBR)

The number of babies born per 1000 people per year

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35

crude death rate (CDR)

The number of deaths per 1000 people per year

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36

crude density

The number of people per unit of land (also called arithmetic density)

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37

cultural barrier

hindrances to cultural diffusion that occur in a society and keep cultural traits from spreading

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38

cultural diffusion

The process in which culture is spread from one region to another

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39

cultural landscape

The unique landscape made up of all parts of a culture-both material and nonmaterial

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40

culture

The cluster of traits that make a group of people special and unique

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41

culture region

A portion of the Earth's surface occupied by populations sharing recognizable and distinctive cultural characteristics

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42

culture hearth

A place where innovations and new ideas originate and spread outward (diffuse) to other regions

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43

culture trait

A single feature of a culture, such as religion or language

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44

decolonization

The process by which former colonies gain their independence from the mother country

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45

deindustrialization

The reduction in industrial activity that occurs when decreased profits and declining business cause a reduction in industrial employment

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46

demographic transition model

A model that shows the link between population growth and economic development using four or five stages of economic development

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47

demography

The study of the characteristics of a human population

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48

density

The number of an item within a unit of area

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49

dependency ratio

The ratio of people under age 15 and those 65 and older to those age 15 to 65

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50

dependency theory

A theory of economic development proposed by Andre Gunder Frank based on the periphery's dependence on the core

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51

desertification

The transformation of agricultural lands into deserts because of overgrazing and soil erosion

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52

MDCs

Countries such as the United States, Germany, and Australia who have the highest levels of economic development

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53

developmentalism

The idea that every country and region will eventually make economic progress toward a high level of mass consumption if they only compete to the best of their ability within the world economy

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54

devolution

The breakdown of central authority in a country

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55

distance decay

The principle that says migrants try to minimize the friction of distance by moving to locations closer to them rather than father away

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56

distribution

The array of items on the Earth's surface. All spatial distributions have density, dispersion, and some type of pattern

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57

domino theory

The theory prevalent during the Cold War Era that once a country became communist, its neighbors were likely to soon become communist also

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58

doubling time

The length of time it takes for a country's population to double in size if the growth rate stays the same

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59

dialect

A speech variants of a language, which reflects the local region in which it is spoken

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60

ecumene

The part of the Earth that is fit for humans to live

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61

edge city

A new urban complex that consists of a large node of office buildings and commercial operations with more workers than residents

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62

elongated state

A state that is long and narrow, such as Vietnam or Chile

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63

enclave

A piece of territory completely surrounded by another territory of which it is not a part

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64

environmental determinism

The theory that human behavior is controlled by the physical environment

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65

ethnic enclave

A residential community where the residents either voluntarily live, or are forced to live, in a segregated (separated) fashion due to race, religion, or ethnicity

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66

ethnic island

A small ethnic settlement centered in the middle of a larger group of the population

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67

ethnic religion

A religion that is part of a particular ethnic or political group (Judaism, for example)

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68

ethnocentrism

The belief that one's own ethnic group is superior to all others

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69

exclave

An outlier, or piece of a territory, that is completely enclosed within the borders of another country

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70

exclusive economic zone (EEZ)

An expanse of water up to 200 natural nautical miles off a country's coast that is designated for that country's natural resource exploration and exploitation

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71

export-processing zones (EPZs)

Small areas of a country with exceptional investment and trading conditions that are created by its government to stimulate and attract foreign investors and business

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72

federal state

A type of government that gives local political units such as states or provinces within a country a measure of power

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73

First Agricultural Revolution

The domestication of plants and animals and the resulting start of a sedentary society (also called the Neolithic Agricultural Revolution)

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74

first effective settlement

The first group (charter group) of settlers who establish a new and lasting culture and society in an area

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75

fixed cost

The cost of land, plant, and machinery that is not variable

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76

folk culture

A homogenous group of people with a strong family structure who follow a simple, traditional lifestyle of self-sufficiency and independence from the society's cultural mainstream

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77

footloose firms

Firms that produce something that requires minimal transport costs

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78

Fordism

The process (named after Henry Ford, its founder) of using assembly-line techniques and scientific management in manufacturing

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79

formal region

A region with a high level of consistency in a certain culture of physical attribute

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80

forward capital

A capital city that is located away from the core region for economic or political reasons in a symbolic gesture

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81

fragmented state

A state that has two or more areas of territory separated by another country

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82

functional region

A region with a node, or center hub surrounded by interconnecting linkages. Usually connections relate to trade, communication, transportation, etc.

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83

gateway city

A city that served as the control center for a former colonial power

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84

gentrification

The process of renovating an older, run-down neighborhood near the center city by middle-class and high-income families

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85

GIS

The marriage of mapping software with a database for the purpose of overlaying various data layers on a basic, locational map grid

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86

gerrymandering

The process of redrawing territorial district boundaries to favor a certain political party

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87

ghetto

An ethnic enclave where the residents live segregated (separated) by race, religion, or ethnicity in a voluntary or sometimes, forced, manner

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88

ghetto

The concentration of a certain group of residents in a certain residential area against their will through legal means or social discrimination

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89

globalization

The increasing interconnection of all regions in the world through politics, communication, transportation, marketing, manufacturing, and social and cultural processes

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90

GMO (genetically modified organisms)

An organism that is created when scientists take one or more specific genes from one organism and introduce them into another organism thus creating a new version

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91

gravity model

A law of spatial interaction that states that larger places attract people, ideas, and goods more strongly that smaller places

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92

Green Revolution

The development and transfer from the developed world to the developing world, of higher-yield and fast-growing crops through new and improved technology, pesticides, and fertilizers, for the purpose of alleviating world hunger

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93

GDP

The approximate value of all final goods and services produced in a country per year

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94

gross national product (GNP)

The gross domestic product (GDP) plus the value of income from abroad such as earnings from a US company based abroad

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95

growth pole

An urban center deliberately placed by a country's government to stimulate economic growth in the hinterland

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96

heartland-rimland theory

Halford Mackinder's theory that the country that dominated the landmass of Eurasia (heartland) would eventually rule the world (rimland)

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97

hierarchial diffusion

The adoption of an official language by the ruler or administration, a language diffused downward into the society

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98

hinterlands

The surrounding trade area of an urban area

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99

host society

The dominant culture group in an area receiving a minority group

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100

human capital theory of migration

The migration theory that states that educated workers often migrate from poor countries to wealthy countries seeking better-paying jobs

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