Mod 10: Late adulthood stage

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Late Adulthood Stage

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159 Terms

1

Late Adulthood Stage

Longest developmental stage across the lifespan Ages 60 years and above (until death)

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Graying

term for late adulthood stage

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524

Late Adulthood Stage: ___ million people over 65 worldwide

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Aging

Physiological changes that take place in the human body leading to senescence

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Senescence

the decline of biological functions and of the ability to adapt to metabolic stress

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Cognition

The mental processes involved in gaining knowledge and comprehension. Various higher-level functions of the brain that encompass language, imagination, perception, and planning.

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35

Total population has increased by at least ___% in the last two deaces

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5

Less than __% of the population is 65 years and older

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4.2%

From 2010-2030 → 60 years & older expected to increase by

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0.4%

From 2010-2030 → 80 years & older expected to increase by

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0-14

By 2065 --> 60 years & older Expected to overtake those aged ____ years old

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63.2 years

current life expectancy of female

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57.4 years

current life expectancy of male

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62.1 years

life expectancy of male in 2030

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67.2 years

life expectancy of female in 2030

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Young Old

60-74 years old; "Golden years of adulthood"; Experience relatively good health and social engagement, knowledge and expertise, and adaptive flexibility in daily living

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Old-Old

75-84 years old; Likely living independently but often experience physical impairments since chronic diseases increase after age 75

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Oldest-Old

85-89 years old; Often includes people who have more serious chronic ailments; More likely to require long-term care and to be in nursing homes

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Centenarians

100+ years old; Tended to be healthier than many of their peers as they were growing older, and often there was a delay in the onset of any serious disease or disability until their 90s.

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Supercentenarians

110+ years old; internationally, 25% reach 100 with no serious chronic illnesses, such as depression, osteoporosis, heart disease, respiratory illness, or dementia; quite rare

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Jean Louise Calment

oldest person; from France; 122 years and 164 days

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government service, private sector

Economic Well Being: Continue to work well beyond retirement age: ____ ____ (65 years), ___ ___ (60 years)

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4

Economic Well Being: __ in 10 respondents said that household income is just enough to pay expenses with no difficulty

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money from children within the PH; income from farm/business; income from work

Economic Well Being: most common income source

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22

Economic Well Being: __% said that their income source comes from pension

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real estate (11%) (house (most common asset)), cash (12%), bank accounts (6%)

Economic Well Being: material positions

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average health, functional disability

Healthcare: Half of older Filipinos consider themselves to be of ___ ___ but report ___ ___ with illness

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common illness

Healthcare: arthritis, rheumatism, high blood pressure, chronic back pain, and cataracts

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15%

Healthcare: __ have difficulty performing at least 1 Activity of Daily Living

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19%

Healthcare: __ have difficulty performing at least 1 Instrumental

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ADL

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15

Healthcare: only__% have health care insurance

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rely on family for informal care (primary caregivers)

Healthcare: children (38%) and spouse (35%)

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elementary

education: 2 in 3 older Filipinos received at most ____ level education: relatively poor education profile was seen across 1305 respondents

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7

Living Arrangements: __ in 10 older Filipinos live with their child/ren

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8

Living Arrangements: __ in 10 older Filipinos consider the idea of having homes for the aged

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2

Living Arrangements: __ in 10 would want to live in home for the aged

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Older couples should live alone; Independently but near one or more children

Living Arrangements: respondents' best

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perceived arrangements:

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Integrity vs. Despair

Erikson's Developmental Task for older adults

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9

__th Social Stage (Integrity vs. Despair)

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Integrity

a sense of self-acceptance, contentment with life and imminent death

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Despair

a lack of fulfillment or peace and the inability to come to terms with life, aging, and approaching death

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Generativity

willingness to engage in acts

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Capability

ability to do something

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Activity Theory

many people are barred from meaningful activities as they age; In order to cope with these changes, older adults need to

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be more active.

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Avoid a sedentary lifestyle, Maintain a physical and social environment (gain a more positive and stable self-concept -> greater life satisfaction)

In doing Activity Theory, they are able to:

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49

Continuity Theory

As people age, they continue to view the self in much the same way as they did when they were younger

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self-identity

Continuity Theory: Older adults try to focus on optimizing and maintaining

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Share Aspects of their Identity with Others, Focus on what they can do, Pursue Interests/Activities

In Continuity Theory, They:

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Establishment of family roles, Adult engagement in workforce, Facilitating family social ties

In the PH context, their perception regarding aging include:

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Responsibility

Living in multigenerational households and communities shape perceptions of aging as a

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increased productivity and promising experiences

Even though some aspects are declining, it is also viewed as a period of ____ ____ ___ ___ ___ , which come together to form respect and dignity attained with maturation in the individual

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Volunteering

Some older adults are involved in some type of structured, face-to-face, volunteer work like: charity drives (at church/community) barangay work

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informal

In the Philippines, most engage in a sort of ___ type of volunteerism like helping neighbors out (i.e. in fiestas)

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higher life satisfaction & psychological resilience

A study (De Jose, 2014) on older Filipino University Instructors showed that Job satisfaction led to

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Productivity in Work

Many older adults are still employed which allows for independent income stream and worker's happiness derived from the workplace

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Teaching

Older adults carry varied and vast banks of knowledge & life experiences that they have acquired to pass on to future generations; In the Philippines, elders give out advice and life lessons to the younger members of the family

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technical/ theoretical knowledge or communal/societal experience

Teaching of Older Adults may be

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Religious Activities

A lot of older adults do rosary and attend mass religiously because they view prayer as a social support

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social support

Religious Activities: aid in coping with perceived stressors (e.g., work, home) provides a social network & belief system that combats fear of death

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Political Engagement

On holding government positions, on Voting: Many politicians aged 60 above are active in the government in various levels (barangay,

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LGU, RGU, NGU)

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Richer and more diverse life experiences, Commanding of respect, and More grounded and trust-worthy

Older Adults are seated in these positions because people believe they have:

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66

Grandparenting

It has become increasingly common for grandparents to live with and raise their grandchildren, or also to move back in with adult children in their later years.

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Remote grandparenting

see them on special occasions but they live far away

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Companionate grandparenting

grandparents act as a friend and sees the child frequently but not as involved in parenting

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Involved grandparenting

strict and very involved (ex. "Pinalaki ko siya kaya naging lolo's boy yan.")

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Primary Aging

senescence; aka biological aging; The process by which cells irreversibly stop dividing.

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genetic predisposition

Primary Aging: irreversible and is due to

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skin and hair, height and weight, hearing loss, and eye disease

Primary Aging: inevitable changes in the

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Secondary Aging

caused by illness or disease and is potentially reversible

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Stroke, heart disease, cancer, hypertension, stroke, diabetes, Parkinson's Disease, arthritis, COPD

Secondary Aging: Chronic Illnesses:

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EXECUTIVE FUNCTIONS

___ ___ is the label often used for the following group of cognitive functions: Planning, Responding to feedback, Decision-making, Working Memory, Inhibition

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Flexibility

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VISUOSPATIAL SKILLS

relates to... Visual Perception, Visuo-constructional Reasoning, Perceptual-Motor Coordination

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ATTENTION

Relates to the various types such ... Sustained, Divided, Selective; And is greatly affected by... Processing Speed

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MEMORY

Relates to the various functions such as ... Recall: Free & Cued, Memory, Recognition, Long-term: Autobiographical, Semantic; Implicit learning

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SOCIAL COGNITION

Recognition of Emotions, Theory of Mind, Insight

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LANGUAGE

Object naming, Grammar & Syntax, Fluency, Receptive Language, Word Finding, Thought Formulation

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cognitive and neural decline, language is one of the "more stable" areas of cognition

HEALTHY NON-PATHOLOGICAL AGING: Characterized by:

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Word Finding Failures, Increased Slips of the Tongue, Increased Pauses in Speech

LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT IN OLDER ADULTS: Often show deficits in language production:

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Transmission Deficit Model

suggests that semantic and phonological abilities may be dissociable; Explains the "Tip of the tongue" phenomenon occurs more in older adults

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Transmission Deficit Model

suggests that semantic & phonological abilities may be dissociable: node-based hierarchical theory; HYPOTHESIS: as we age, all connections between

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semantic & phonological links weaken

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Items/Aspect Recalled → Activation Propagated → Spreads Through Network → Lexical Label

Word Retrieval Model

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Semantic

WORD RETRIEVAL: MEANING: more redundant and interconnected than

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phonological system

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Phonologic

WORD RETRIEVAL: SOUND: in terms of item labels, less redundant and more prone to retrieval failure; If we fail to retrieve one part we fail to retrieve all

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memory difficulties, decrease in general speed of performance

lexical retrieval difficulties are generally attributed to:

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retrieval deficits

___ ___ may also be language-specific and phonological in nature

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Tip of Tongue

occur when an individual knows what he or she would like to say but is unable to recall the lexical label; partial information about the phonology is available (e.g., starts with /k/)

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94

Generalized Slowing Hypothesis

says that older adults perform behavioral tasks more slowly than young adults; Slowing can be attributed to changes in motor function (articulation) and reaction time measures (take longer to respond)

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motor function

in Generalized Slowing Hypothesis, Slowing can be attributed to changes in ___________ (articulation)

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reaction time measures

in Generalized Slowing Hypothesis, Slowing can be attributed to changes in ____ ___ ___ (take longer to respond)

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Mental Flexibility, Verbal Fluency, Reading Time

LANGUAGE PROCESSING: Often highly correlated to other: Cognitive Measures:

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Inhibition Deficit Theory

age-related performance in older adults can be related to a general decline in inhibitory processes; "walang filter/preno" since the non-automatic executive control affects language selection

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Focus Attention, Ignore/Delete Irrelevant Information

Inhibition can serve to:

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Reading comprehension

Inhibition Deficit Theory affects topic/conversation maintenance and ________

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