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Ptah-Hotep

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115 Terms

1

Ptah-Hotep

set forth guidelines for correct behavior of young men, constructed them on the art of public speaking

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2

Aspasia of Miletus

athenians learned public speaking from her

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3

Shannon and Weaver

source encodes message and transmits through channel where noise is present. the receiver will decode the message and give feedback

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4

Rhetoric

the art of using language effectively and persuasively

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5

Transactional Model of Communication

both senders and receivers exchange messages and feedback simultaneously

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6

civic engagement

individual and collective actions designed to identify and address issues of public concern

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7

Different types of noise

external: lawn mower noise, vacuum cleaner noise aka distracting

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8

internal: physiological (growling stomach, headache)

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9

semantic: communication fails bc of the inability to understand due to linguistic or phonological problems

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10

declamation

type of elocution, recite a famous speech in front of the audience

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11

Fairness Doctrine

provision of copyright laws that allows the use of supporting material for educational purposes

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12

Demagoguery

speech that attempts to win over an audience through appealing to their prejudices and emotions, particularly those of fear, anger, and frustration

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13

Attitudinal Analysis

also known as psychographics, looking at human attitudes, beliefs, values, behaviors, and needs

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14

Culture

learned knowledge that comes through human socialization

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15

Values

fundamental factors of what is believed to be good or bad. very hard to change

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16

Ethocentrism

a person who thinks his or her culture is superior to others

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17

general purpose

the determination of the goal of the speech. to inform, to persuade, to entertain

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18

specific purpose

a precise declaration of what speakers aim to accomplish

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19

central idea

aka: thesis statement. expresses the agenda of the presentation

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20

common ground

the basis for mutual understanding between audiences and speakers

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21

Opinions

aka testimony. helps to enhance the credibility of the points in the presentation

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22

Analogies

comparisons of similarities between unlike things either using a metaphor or a simile

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23

Acquiring Attention

using unique statements, anecdotes, unconventional statements, statistics, and rhetorical questions

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24

Library of Congress Classification System

used mostly by academic libraries, classifies materials using broad categories using english alphabet and numbers

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25

Gazetteers

a geographical index or dictionary.

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26

URL

Uniform Resource Locator

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27

meta search engine

Sends request for information to several search engines simultaneously and compiles the results

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28

Advantages of websites

selling, informing, news outlet, entertaining, advocating, socializing

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29

Evaluation of websites

reliability, trustworthiness, timeliness, bias

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30

types of examples

brief, extended, hypothetical

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31

operation definition

shows the meaning by demonstrating how they work

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32

determining usefulness of statistics

reliability, accuracy, context, rounding off, visual presentation

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33

organizational patterns of organization

chronological, spatial, topical, compare and contrast, cause and effect, problem and solution, monroe's motivated sequence (MMS)

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34

delivery outline

using words and phrases, contains introduction, body topics and supporting details, and conclusions

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35

bibliography

A document showing all the sources used to research information.

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36

attention getters

acts as bait to hook the attention and imagination of the audience

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37

transitions

helps the flow of your speech, first, next, in addition, to conclude

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38

internal summary

help listeners recollect the points and messages that have previously been made to them

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39

problem and solution organizational pattern

presentation of the problems and their solutions

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40

Monroe's Motivated Sequence (MMS)

a five-step organizational pattern

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41
  1. attention

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42

2.need

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43

3.satisfaction

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44

4.visualization

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45

5.action

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46

cliche

a worn-out idea or overused expression

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47

Jargon

vocabulary distinctive to a particular group of people

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48

modification of position in conclusion

do not change your view once you get to conclusion ex: if you are for being an organ donor, don't conclude by saying don't be an organ donor

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49

advantages of using presentation aids

increases understanding, increases retention, creates excitement, emphasizes ideas, enhances credibility, allows for gestures, allows combination of other sensory with sounds

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50

Handouts

typically useful for laying out the main points/you need to make enough copies, call for volunteers, hand them out after presentation, make them look nice,

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51

charts

Visual representations of numerical data

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52

Graphs

relatively simple formats for visually displaying relationships among and between a series of measurements and relevant variables-help people make sense of of quantitative information

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53

people

most exciting visual aid

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54

creative commons (CC)

A nonprofit organization dedicated to the free distribution of creative content

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55

serif fonts

slight curls or lines at the top and bottom of the letter ex: times new roman

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56

Mashups

combining different content from multiple sources

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57

Dialect

a form of language spoken by people in a particular region or group

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58

manuscript

a handwritten or typed piece of writing, such as a book

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59

memorized

learned by heart

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60

extemporaneous

made or delivered on the spur of the moment

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61

pronunciation

the accepted standard of how a word sounds when spoken

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62

Articulation

the clear and precise pronunciation of words

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63

barriers to good listening

Passive listening, drifting thoughts, physical distractions, trigger words, self-fulfilling prophecies

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64

receiver apprehension

The fear of misunderstanding or misinterpreting the spoken messages of others

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65

action-oriented listeners

focus on the ultimate point the speaker is trying to make

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66

content-oriented listeners

carefully evaluate what they hear

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67

time-oriented listeners

prefer information that is clear and to the point

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68

people-oriented listeners

view listening as an opportunity to establish commonalities between themselves and others

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69

attitudes, beliefs, values

terms commonly used when discussing the audience for media products and the factors influencing the reception of media messages.

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70

two-dimensional presentation aid

Pictures, Diagrams etc.

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71

Pie/line/picture graph

Graphs showing information

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72

small group communication

communication occurring within small groups of three or more people with common purposes

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73

Team in small groups

A team with three or four people

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74

Leadership

The action of leading a group of people or an organization

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75

consensus

general agreement

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76

authoritarian leader

an individual who leads by giving orders

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77

transformational leaders

leaders who inspire followers to focus on common, long-term goals

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78

laizzes faire leaders

Leaders who don't interfere

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79

democratic leader

an individual who leads by trying to reach a consensus

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80

agenda

Plan of action; purpose

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81

acommodation

adapting one's current understandings to incorporate new information

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82

fact

A statement that can be proved.

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83

Social Judgement Theory

perception and evaluation of an idea by comparing it with current attitudes

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84

lattitude of acceptance

The more you care about something, the more narrow this is.

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85

lattitude of rejection

the range of ideas that a person sees as unreasonable or objectionable

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86

lattitude of noncommitment

The positions which are neither accepted nor rejected

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87

inductive and deductive reasoning

inductive: specific to general

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88

deductive: general to specific

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89

Falacy

a false notion or mistaken belief

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90

either/or fallacy

oversimplifying an issue as offering only two choices

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91

Fallacy: Ad Hominem

Attack on the user instead of the argument

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92

bandwagon fallacy

suggesting that because everyone believes something or does something, it must be valid, accurate, or effective

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93

fallacy of hasty generalization

a generalization based on a sample that is too small to support it

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94

Ethos

credibility

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95

Logos

Appeal to logic

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96

Pathos

Appeal to emotion

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97

Irony

A contrast between expectation and reality

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98

demagogue

a leader who appeals to citizens' emotions to obtain power

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99

cause and effect

The reason something happens and the result of it happening.

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100

Refutation in persuasive speaking

You should persuade instead of prove

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