AP Psychology

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118 Terms

1

regression to the mean

extremes in measurement tend to eventually return to an average level

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2

attribution theory

how we explain the behaviors of others

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3

dispositional attribution

behavior is due to aspects of a person’s personality

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4

situational attribution

behavior is due to aspects of a person’s environment

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5

fundamental attribution theory

tendency to make dispositional attributions when situational attributions are more accurate

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6

ultimate attribution error

tendency to view causes for behavior with bias based on whether the behavior is ours or that of others

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7

defensive attribution/just world phenomenon

tendency to assume that when bad things happen to people, they brought it upon themselves

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8

cognitive dissonance

the feeling of conflict when our actions and our attitudes don’t match up

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9

compliance

getting other people to do what we want

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10

foot-in-the-door technique

getting someone to agree to something small increases the likelihood of them agreeing to something larger at a later time

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11

door-in-the-face technique

making a large request (refused) leads to a higher likelihood of success when something smaller is requested

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12

Stanly Milgram

the study of electric shocks on learning (teacher, student)

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13

conformity

changing our behavior to match the behavior of others

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14

chameleon effect

the unconscious mimicking of behavior

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15

normative social influence

changing behavior in order to gain acceptance or avoid rejection

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16

informational social influence

changing behaviors based on the trust of the expertise/credibility of others

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17

Soloman Asch

the line comparison task study

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18

central route to persuasion

when the content of the message is what convinces someone to act in a certain way

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19

peripheral route to persuasion

when superfluous details of a message are what convinces someone to act a certain way

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20

social facilitation

the presence of others enhances performance on mastered tasks

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21

social impairment

the presence of others hinders performance on difficult tasks

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22

social loafing

tendency for people working together to put out less effort than they would if they were working alone

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23

deindividuation

losing inhibitions due to anonymity of being in a group

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24

group polarization

enhancement of a group’s shared attitude through discussion

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25

groupthink

erroneous thinking that results from a group of people who usually agree with one another making decisions

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26

prejudice

an unjustified attitude toward a group of people (cognitive)

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27

discrimination

actions taken based on prejudice (behavioral)

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28

social cognitive theory

improperly formed or used schemas cause prejudice

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29

social identity theory

comparisons between ourselves and others cause prejudice

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30

social catigorization

recognizing groups of people based on some criterion

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31

social identification

recognizing which groups we belong to (ingroups and outgroups)

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32

social comparison

making judgements about ingroups and outgroups

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33

positive distinctiveness

thinking and feeling favorably about oneself

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34

ingroup bias

preferring others who are similar to oneself

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35

outgroup discrimination

thinking unfavorably about others who are dissimilar about oneself

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36

scapegoating

unjustifiably taking out negative emotions on another group

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37

approach-approach conflict

when two options are equally appealing

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38

avoidance-avoidance conflict

when two options are equally unappealing

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39

approach-avoidance conflict

when a single option has some appealing aspects and some unappealing aspects

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40

frustration-aggression principle

obstacles to achieving goals cause frustration which in turn increases the likelihood of aggressive behavior

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41

social trap

when decisions made based on personal interests rather than the best outcome for the group cause an unpleasant outcome for all

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42

superordinate goals

shared goals between conflicting parties that force cooperation

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43

mere exposure affect

proximity increases familiarity and liking

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44

Robert Sternberg

triangular theory of love: intimate love, commitment love, passionate love

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45

consummate love

a love embodying all three from the triangle theory of love

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46

altruism

selfless concern for the well-being of others

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47

bystander affect

the likelihood of giving aid decreases when other people are present

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48

social exchange theory

decisions about whether to help someone in need are based on a personal cost-benefit analysis

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49

reciprocity norm

helping another person is expected if they have helped us in the past

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50

social responsibility norm

helping another person is expected whenever possible because it is the right thing to do

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51

Phillip Zimbardo

Stanford prison experiment - studied the effect of assigned social roles and expectations of behavior

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52

prototype

another term for schema - a mental conception of something

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53

categories

a hierarchy for mental organization (superordinate, basic, subordinate)

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54

confirmation bias

the tendency to only accept information that supports a pre-existing belief

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55

belief perseverence

clinging to initial conclusions, even after they have been discredited

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56

framing

the way in which information is presented; may alter cognition about the information

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57

insight

the mental experience of reaching a solution to a problem

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58

algorithm

a method for problem-solving that involves examining every possible solution; guarantees accuracy, but can be time consuming

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59

heuristic

a method for problem solving that involves using a rule to eliminate possible answers; faster process, but can be error-prone

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60

availability heuristic

judging the likelihood of something based on how easily it comes to mind

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61

representativeness heuristic

judging the likelihood of something based on how well it fits in a prototype/schema

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62

convergent thinking

the type of mental processing necessary to solve a problem that has a single answer

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63

divergent thinking

the type of mental processing necessary to solve a problem that has multiple possible answers

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64

mental set

a common problem-solving error that involves solving a problem in a familiar way based on past experiences (3 jugs problem)

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65

fixation

inability to solve a problem due to a lack of necessary perspective

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66

functional fixation

inability to see the uses of an object beyond its originally intended purpose

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67

phonemes

the most basic sounds that make up a language

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68

morphemes

basic sound elements of a language that have meaning; made up of phonemes

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69

grammar

the rules for using a language

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70

semantics

the use of words to accurately and meaningfully convey an idea

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71

syntax

the correct arrangement of word order for a language

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72

critical period

a limited window of developmental opportunity during which a particular skill (language) ins most easily learned

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73

babbling stage

speaking includes phonemes, but no application of words or grammar

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74

holophrastic stage

the use of one word to convey meaning

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75

telegraphic stage

the use of two meaningfully connected words to convey meaning

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76

syntax stage

the use of words that includes the beginnings of grammatical rules and beyond

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77

B.F. Skinner

Operant Learning Theory - language is learned through imitation and consequences that follow

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78

Noam Chomsky

inborn universal grammar - the capacity to learn language is innate (LAD)

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79

Benjamin Whorf

linguistic determinism - the language we use and the ways that we think about the world are connected

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80

Alfred Binet

created the original IQ test comparing chronological age to mental age

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81

Lewis Terman

created the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Test

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82

David Wechsler

created WPPSI, WISC, WAIS

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83

Charles Spearman

believed that the most accurate measure of intelligence was a single, overall score embodying all of their intellectual skills

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84

savant syndrome

disabled people having one ability that surpasses the general population

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85

Howard Gardner

8 multiple ways to be intelligent

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86

Robert Sternberg

3 ways to be intelligent

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87

achievement test

an assessment that measures one’s accumulated knowledge about a subject/topic

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88

aptitude test

an assessment that predicts one’s success in some future endeavor or task

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89

reliability

the extent to which an assessment yields consistent results

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90

validity

the extent to which an assessment yields consistent results

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91

stereotype threat

a self confirming concern that one will be evaluated on a negative stereotype

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92

flynn effect

a recorded increase in average IQ that occurs with each new generation

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93

down syndrome

a genetic cause of intellectual disability; caused by a trisomy of chromosome 21

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94

fragile X syndrome

a genetic cause of intellectual disability; caused by mutation errors on the X chromosome

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95

Wolfgang Kohler

non-human animal cognition; researched problem-solving strategies of other animals and found that it is pretty similar to humans

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96

DSM-5

the diagnostic and statistical manual for mental disorders - 5th edition; Encyclopedia of symptoms, causes and Research on all psych disorders

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97

Aaron Beck

The cognitive triad of depression; negative thoughts about oneself, the world, and the future

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98

Albert Ellis

rational emotive therapy; the therapist questions and challenges the unrealistic cognition of the client, picking it apart over time

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99

Suicide

more attempts by women but more completions by men; more in the elderly

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100

physical dependance

ones biological need for a drug, marked by alterations to the body’s internal chemistry

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