APES Semester 2 Review

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Where does today’s population get most of its energy from?

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1

Where does today’s population get most of its energy from?

Non-renewable sources like oil, gas, and coal

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Renewable energy sources can be replenished…

Naturally or through a sustainable practice like water, sun, wind, and wildlife

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3

Biomass energy

Is inexpensive, helps with garbage disposal, and reduces the need for landfills

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4

Is biomass energy clean?

No, it releases greenhouse gases

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5

Hydropower energy

Is less expensive but requires a dam to be built across a fast-moving water source

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6

Is hydropower energy clean?

No, it adds water vapor to the atmosphere

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7

Geothermal energy

Is very expensive to construct and maintain as it is only built in areas where heated groundwater is close to the surface.

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8

Is geothermal energy clean?

Yes

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9

Wind power

Needs space and wind to make the turbines cost-effective

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10

Is wind energy clean?

Yes

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11

Solar power

Has expensive set-up cots and maintenance, it also requires space to house the panels.

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12

Is solar power clean?

Yes

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13

Nonrenewable energy sources

Exist in a fixed amount and involve energy transformations that can’t be easily replaced

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14

Natural gas

Can be used directly in homes for heating and cooking but the burning of fossil fuels releases carbon dioxide and water vapor into the atmosphere

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15

Petroleum oil

Is inexpensive but releases greenhouse gases into the atmosphere

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16

Coal

Is efficient and inexpensive but the associated mining can damage the habitat of the surrounding area

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17

Nuclear power

Is an energy source that doesn’t pollute the atmosphere but is expensive to build and maintain. The process to extract the energy produces radiation.

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18

What are the basic steps in generating electricity in a typical coal power plant?

  • Coal is burned to produce heat

  • Heat is used to create steam

  • Steam turns a turbine

  • Turbine generates electricity

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19

British thermal units (Btu)

We use these to compare energy use from different types of energy sources

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20

Cogeneration

When a single fuel source serves more than one purpose

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21

What are the three types of coal?

  • Anthracite

  • Bituminous

  • Lignite

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22

Anthracite

contains a lot of carbon, is brittle and lustrous, and is used for industrial use and metals

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Bituminous

contains some carbon, is shiny and layered, is the most common type in the US, and is used in the production of steel and electricity

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Lignite

contains very little carbon, has a crumbly texture, and is used for power plants

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25

What is natural gas mainly composed of?

Methane

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26

What is crude oil?

unrefined petroleum

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27

Fossil fuels

Are formed from plant and animal remains from millions of years ago and can be made into specific fuel types

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What can crude oil be refined into?

Diesel, jet fuels, gasoline, heavy fuel oil

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Tar sands

contain bitumen which can be extracted at strip mines and refined into oil

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Oil shale can be refined into?

Jet fuel, diesel, and kerosene

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Surface retort

A critical process in oil shale mining, involving crushing and heating the shale

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32

How do we access natural gas?

By hydrologic fracturing where highly pressurized fluids are used to drive open cracks in underground rocks

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33

What are the criteria for oil or natural gas to form?

  • Presence of organic matter

  • High temperature and pressure

  • Source rock with high hydrocarbon content

  • Porous and permeable reservoir rock

  • Trapping mechanism to prevent migration of oil or gas

  • Sufficient time for maturation and migration to occur

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34

What are the three steps to purify oil products?

  1. Separation: The first step involves separating the oil from impurities such as water, sand, and gas. This is done using a separator that uses gravity to separate the different components.

  2. Conversion: The second step involves converting the impurities into harmless substances. This is done using various processes such as hydro treating, cracking, and desulfurization.

  3. Polishing: The final step involves polishing the oil to remove any remaining impurities. This is done using filters and other polishing equipment to ensure that the oil is clean and ready for use.

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35

What is the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ)?

A region within 200 miles of US shores where petroleum is drilled

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36

How is nuclear power released?

Fission and fusion

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Advantages of using nuclear energy to produce electricity?

  • Low greenhouse gas emissions

  • Doesn’t contribute to acid deposition

  • Is highly concentrated

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38

Disadvantages of using nuclear energy to produce electricity?

  • High cost of building and maintaining nuclear power plants

  • Risk of nuclear accidents and radiation leaks

  • Difficulty in disposing of nuclear waste

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39

Three Mile Island

  • Date of Incident: March 28, 1979

  • Type of Reactor: Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR)

  • Cause of Incident: Loss of coolant due to a valve malfunction and operator error

  • Consequences: Partial meltdown of the reactor core, release of radioactive gases and iodine into the environment, no immediate deaths but long-term health effects debated

  • Lessons Learned: Improved safety regulations and procedures, increased public awareness and scrutiny of nuclear power, decreased public support for nuclear energy.

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Chernobyl

  • Date: April 26, 1986

  • Cause: Explosion and fire in Reactor 4 of the Power Plant

  • Immediate Deaths: 2 plant workers died on the night of the explosion

  • Long-term Deaths: Estimated 4,000 deaths due to radiation exposure

  • Evacuation: 116,000 people were evacuated from the surrounding area

  • Consequences: Increased cancer rates, birth defects, and environmental damage

  • Lessons Learned: Improved safety measures and regulations for nuclear power plants.

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Fukushima

  • Date: March 11, 2011

  • Magnitude: 9.0 earthquake and subsequent tsunami

  • Damage: Three of six reactors experienced meltdowns, hydrogen explosions, and radioactive releases

  • Casualties: No direct deaths from radiation, but over 18,000 deaths from the earthquake and tsunami

  • Cleanup: Ongoing, estimated to take decades and cost billions of dollars

  • Lessons learned: Need for improved safety measures and emergency response plans in nuclear power plants.

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42

Where are spent fuel rods stored?

Pools of water

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43

Energy conservation

Any number of practices that involve using less energy

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44

Energy efficiency

Uses technology to use less energy.

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45

Energy intensity

a metric that allows countries to track their progress on accomplishing these goals

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46

How to calculate energy intensity?

Take total energy consumption and divide by GDP

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47

High energy intensity means

a high cost in converting energy into GDP

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48

Green building

the practice of creating a building that is environmentally friendly and resource-efficient from its design, construction, operation, and maintenance.

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49

Daylighting

maximizes benefits from natural sunlight to light and heat a building.

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50

Cool roofs

have a light color and are made of materials that have high solar reflectance to keep homes and office buildings cooler

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51

Energy Star products

a government-backed program that provides services to reduce and make energy consumption more efficient

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52

Cars release?

carbon monoxide

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53

Volatile organic compounds cause

eye, nose, and throat irritation as well as headaches

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54

Biogenic pollutants

don’t cause long-term effects on the environment

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Primary pollutants

are directly from the source and are in the same form

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Secondary pollutants

change in a chemical reaction in the atmosphere

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Mobile sources of pollution?

Cars, trucks, and planes

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Stationary sources of pollution?

factories like power plants, chemical plants, oil refineries, and commercial facilities

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Ozone

protects against UV radiation from the sun

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Clean Air Act

regulates and sets standards for ozone, particulate matter, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and lead.

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Photochemical smog

Type of smog that is caused by the interaction of nitrogen oxide and sun with VOCs as well as vehicle exhausts

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Sulfurous smog

Type of smog that is associated with damp weather and accompanied by a large amount of particulate matter

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Thermal inversion

happens when a warm air mass can move over a cool air mass and can create smog because it prevents pollution from being dispersed

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64

Most common natural sources of indoor air pollutants?

Radon, mold, and dust

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Asbestos

a mineral used for home insulation and can release harmful particulate matter if disturbed

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Environmental tobacco smoke

smoke from cigarettes and tobacco that result in the release of particulate matter

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Biological contaminants

bacteria, mold, mildew, pollen, dust mites, and dander

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Heating systems

stoves, heaters, fireplaces, and chimneys which can release headaches, weakness, nausea, and more

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Household chemicals

cleaning, disinfecting, degreasing, and hobby products that cause dust particles to become airborne during cleaning

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70

Formaldehyde is:

a colorless, pungent gas used in building materials and dry cleaning

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71

Radon-222 is a:

colorless, odorless, and tasteless naturally occurring radioactive gas that can infiltrate homes

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72

Sick building syndrome and building-related illness are partially caused by

increased insulation and air tightness

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Methods for reducing air pollutants?

  • Switching to cleaner energy sources

  • Implementing stricter emissions regulations

  • Exhaust hoods/fans in the kitchen and bathroom

  • Propane grills instead of charcoal

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74

Catalytic converters do what?

They help control air pollution by converting pollutants in exhaust into less harmful molecules

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75

Scrubbers?

Clean contaminated exhaust and flue gas streams from industrial exhaust systems

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Wet scrubbers?

Utilize water or other liquid chemicals to absorb the contaminants as they pass through the liquid

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Electrostatic precipitators

Use charged energy to remove dust and other contaminants from industrial exhaust

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What are the four ways to reduce the amount of radon in a home?

Subslab suction, drain tile suction, sump hole suction, and block wall suction

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79

Acid deposition is…?

rain, snow, fog or particulate matter, gas with a pH less than 5

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80

Episodic acidification

occurs over a short period of time and has significant effects on a community like a loss of biodiversity. Caused by rapid snow melt.

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Chronic acidification

occurs over a long period of time and depletes an ecosystem of calcium, potassium, and magnesium. It happens in region that are subject to steady streams of sulfuric dioxide products

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Environmental indicators of acid deposition?

Decreased pH levels in bodies of water, increased concentrations of metals, increased levels of sulfates and nitrates, and changes in indicator organisms

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What is the process of acid deposition?

Nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxides react with water, oxygen, carbon dioxide, and sunlight

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Primary ecological effects of acid deposition?

Depleted base levels of nutrients in an ecosystem as it leaches base cations from the soil, aluminum is released into the ecosystem, adds nitrogen that can lead to eutrophication

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85

Long-term effects of noise pollution:

indigestion, ulcers, high blood pressure, stroke, and heart disease

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86

Noise pollution effects for animals?

Trouble communicating, finding a mate, reproducing, and taking care of their young

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Point source pollutants

come from a known location like a factory or garbage dump

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Nonpoint source pollutants

come from a variety of sources at once

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89

Water pollution is considered a…

point source because it can be traced to a specific source

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Benthic macroinvertebrates

are of importance when determining water quality in a river, stream, or lake not in a swimming pool

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Aquatic worms

large numbers of these indicate poor water quality

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Caddis flies

serve as water indicators for many conditions

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Stoneflies

usually indicate good water quality

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Endocrine disruptor chemicals

affect developmental, reproductive, neural, and immune functions. They interfere with signals that hormones carry which disrupts the function of tissue and organs

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Bioaccumulation

buildup of chemicals within the bodies of organisms

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Biomagnification

happens when toxic substances that are present in small amounts in organisms low in the food chain are concentrated in larger amounts to organisms higher up

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Persistent organic pollutants

are toxic to organisms because they’re soluble in fat and accumulate in the fatty tissue of organisms

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DDT

an insecticide that helps protect against insect-spread disease and is a POP

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PCBs

industrial chemicals used in heat-exchange fluids, electrical transformers and capacitors, paints, sealants, and plastics

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100

What is the process of bioaccumulation

Primary consumers ingest oil droplets, some of the oil is digested and some is stored, a bigger animals eats the first one and all of the oil is transferred to them

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