Nutrition Final

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What are the two vitamins that aren't obtained through food?

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1

What are the two vitamins that aren't obtained through food?

Vitamin K/Vitamin D

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2

Where is Vitamin K produced?

colonic bacteria in the gut

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3

Where is Vitamin D produced?

skin

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4

T/F: vitamins and minerals don't contain kcals but do play a role in energy creation

true

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5

Describe the origin of preformed vitamin A vs provitamin A

preformed: animal source provitamin A: plant source

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6

What are the two types of vitamins?

fat soluble and water soluble

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7

Fat soluble vitamins

A, D, E, K

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8

Water soluble vitamins

C, B-complex vitamins

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9

Toxicity more likely with what type of vitamins

fat soluble

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10

Where are fat soluble vitamins stored

adipose tissue

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11

What happens to excesses of water-soluble vitamins in the body? What is this process called?

excreted in the urine - down-regulation

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12

T/F: toxicity of a vitamin or mineral only occurs through supplementation

true

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13

T/F: one food contains all vitamins and minerals

false

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14

vitamins and minerals essential for

life and metabolic funcitons

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15

most abundant mineral in the body (2% BW)

calcium

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16

dairy, fish, veggies, tofu, legumes, nuts

food sources for calcium

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17

osteoporosis, rickets, impaired muscle contraction, muscle cramps

signs of calcium deficiency

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18

constipation, trace mineral absorption inhibited, heart arrhythmias, kidney stones, calcification of soft tissue

signs of calcium toxicity

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19

What percentage of women are at risk for osteoprosis-related fractures over the age of 50

50%

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20

What is the function of Vitamin D?

Acts as a hormone to increase intestinal absorption of calcium; promotes bone and teeth formation

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21

Sources of Vitamin D (3)

fatty fish, sunlight, dairy (fortified)

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22

T/F: beans and lentils not a source of calcium

true

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23

Low PTH, rickets/osteomalacia

vitamin d deficiency signs

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24

Headache, fatigue, diarrhea

vitamin d toxicity signs

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25

essential in the oxidative process and electron transfer, also hemo/myoglobin formation

iron

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26

which type of iron is found in animal vs plant foods?

heme iron = animal non heme iron = plant

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27

fatigue, iron-deficiency anemia, impaired temp regulation, and decreased resistance to infection

iron deficiency signs

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28

hemochromatosis, liver damage

iron toxicity signs

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29

primary POSITION ion in intercellular fluid responsible for nerve impulse conduction, muscle contraction, acid-base balance, and blood volume hemostasis

potassium

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30

fruits, veggies, dairy, chicken, beef, fish

food sources that contain potassium

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31

loss of appetite, muscle cramps, apathy, irregular heartbeat

potassium deficiency signs (hypokalemia)

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32

inhibited heart functions

potassium toxicity signs (hyperkalemia)

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33

primary POSITIVE ion in extracellular fluid that is responsible for nerve impulse conduction, muscle contraction, acid-base balance, and blood volume hemostasis

sodium

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34

processed foods, canned foods, cured meats, dairy

food sources of sodium

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35

muscle cramps, nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, seizures, dizziness, shock, coma

sodium deficiency signs (hyponatremia)

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36

What is the key sign of sodium toxicity?

HTN

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37

What percent of Americans are taking vitamin and mineral supplements?

50%

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38

T/F: Its possible to obtain all vitamins and minerals through food

true

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39

What are vitamin and mineral megadoses?

pharmacological doses for experimental treatment (CVD, cancer etc)

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40

How much of our body is water

2/3

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41

What are the adequate water intake levels for men and women?

Men: 3.7 liters/day Women: 2.7 liters/day

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42

The kidneys control water levels via what two mechanisms?

osmolality and hormones (ADH/RAAS)

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43

common electrolytes (6)

potassium, calcium, sodium, bicarbonate, sulfate, magnesium

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44

How does vasopressin/anti-diuretic hormone become stimulated? What is the result?

increased blood osmolality

increases reabsorption of H20 in kidneys

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45

When does the RAAS system become activated? What is the result?

decreased blood pressure

increases reabsorption of sodium and water

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46

What stimulates natriuretic peptides? What is the result?

increased blood pressure

increases excretion of sodium and water

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47

Sodium is high in our ____ fluids whereas potassium is high in our ______ fluid

extracellular, intracellular

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48

80% of sodium in typical american diet comes from

processed foods

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49

Obese class I vs class II

class 1 = BMI 30-35 class 2 = BMI 35-40

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50

android vs gynoid body shape

android = apple = upper body obesity gynoid = pear = lower body obesity

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51

what is the essential fat needed for?

functioning of body structures

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52

storage fat found in

subcutaneous fat and visceral fat

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53

biometric impedance analysis (body composition) is based on principle of

resistance to an electric current applied to the body

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54

skinfold thickness measures what

subcutaneous fat

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55

What is the gold standard to assess body composition

DEXA scan

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56

What is anthropometry?

Science related to take measurements of the human body (height, weight, circumference)

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57

What is the ideal waist circumference for a male versus a female?

male = <40 female = <35

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58

BMI for underweight

under 18.5

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59

healthy BMI overweight BMI obese BMI

healthy 18.5-24.9 overweight 25-29 obese +30

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60

The physiological drive to find and eat food

hunger

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61

The physiological drive to eat that is affected by EXTERNAL factors like social customs, time of day, mood, sight of food etc...

appetite

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62

Satiety (feeling of fullness) and hunger is regulated by

hypothalamus

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63

What is set point theory?

Theory that says our body is programmed to be a certain weight/body composition (our body may resist weight loss/gain)

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64

Mild and short-term changes in eating patterns that occur in relation to a stressful event, an illness, or a desire to modify one's diet

disordered eating

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65

severe alterations in eating patterns linked to physiological changes

eating disorders

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66

What are the three clinically diagnosable eating disorders?

anorexia, bulimia, and binge eating disorder

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67

characterized by severe restriction of intake, inability to maintain body weight, fear of gaining weight

anorexia

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68

recurrent episodes of binge eating at least 2x/week for 3 months with purging, concerns with body weight and shape

bulimia nervosa

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69

regular use of self-induced vomiting, laxatives, diuretics, fasting, or excessive exercise

purging

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70

eating quickly during a binge episode until uncomfortably full, not hungry, eating alone due to difficulty

no purging

binge eating disorder

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71

what is the female athlete triad

disordered eating, amenorrhea, osteoporosis

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72

T/F: female athlete triad not a diagnosable eating disorder according to DSM

true

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73

Which body shape is associated with elevated risk for diabetes and cardiovascular disease?

android/apple shape

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74

The eating disorder associated with decreased heart muscle mass, decreased bone density and increased risk for cardiovascular disease is:

anorexia

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75

T/F: appetite is mainly controlled by physiological factors

false; psychological

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76

1 llb body weight = ____ kcals

3500 kcals

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77

positive versus negative energy balance

positive when kcal consumed more than burned, negative opposite

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78

daily weight fluctuations (3-5 llb) could be due to what three things?

highly salted meal, sweating (water weight loss), hormones

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79

Four components that make up our body weight

fat mass, muscle mass, water weight, glycogen stores

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80

What is the safe rate of weight loss for an adult? What does this equate to in terms of a kcal deficit per day?

1-2 llb per week or 1.5% of body weight

500-1000 kcal deficit per day

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81

T/F: overweight/obese adolescents are advised to lose no more than 1 lb/week so that weight loss does not compromise normal growth and development

true

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82

kcal intake below ____ will typically result in a slower metabolic rate as the body is trying to conserve energy (don't go lower than this value)

1200 kcal

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83

For weight loss: aim to maximize losses in ____ and minimize losses in ____

fat mass, lean mass

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84

For weight gain: aim to maximize gains in _____ and minimize gains in _____

lean mass, fat mass

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85

stopping linking things like popcorn at a movie or food at a place is an example of

chain breaking behavior

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86

stimulus control behavior is

altering environment to minimize stimuli for eating (storing snacks out of sight)

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87

what is cognitive restructuring

changes frame of mind regarding eating (ex: sub a different reward instead of eating)

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88

what is contingency management?

prepares for situations that may trigger overeating (food at holiday parties)

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89

What is self-monitoring?

tracks which foods are eaten, when, why, and how one feels

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90

What BMI is indicated for bariatric surgeries (adjustable gastric banding/gastric bypass)

BMI over 40

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91

Athlete wants to lose 15 lbs at the fastest rate possible. How long will it take her to lose 15 lbs safely?

7.5 weeks (1-2 llbs per week is safe)

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92

T/F: essential body fat is naturally higher in females

true

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93

moderate alcohol consumption defined as

1 drink a day for women and 1-2 for men

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94

binge drinking definition

4+ drinks a day for women and 5+ for men on one occasion

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95

alcohol primarily absorbed in the _____ and metabolized in the ______

intestines (80%); liver

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96

Excess alcohol intake is associated with what liver condition?

fatty liver

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97

reduce coronary disease and stroke, decrease platelet aggregation, increase HDL, improved cognitive function

positive effects of moderate alcohol consumption

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98

liver disease, psychological problems, cardiovascular disease, cancer, obesity

negative health consequences associated with alcohol

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99

What property of beer has antioxidant properties/anti-inflammatory properties

Hops

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100

caffeine can be classified as

food, dietary supplement, drug

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