Appendicular Skeleton

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what is the elevating motion that lifts the front of the foot and the toes off the ground while the heel remains planted

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1

what is the elevating motion that lifts the front of the foot and the toes off the ground while the heel remains planted

dorsiflexion

<p>dorsiflexion</p>
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2

what is the motion that points the toes downward

plantarflexion

<p>plantarflexion</p>
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3

what is the twisting motion of the foot that turns the sole outward

eversion

<p>eversion</p>
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4

A twisting motion of the foot that turns the sole inward is (chapter question)

inversion

<p>inversion </p>
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5

Almost all football knee injuries occur when the player has the foot “planted” and extended rather than flexed. What anatomical facts would account for that? (chapter question)

When the knee is flexed, it is able to move in response to a hit from the inside or outside (medial or lateral surfaces) However when the knee is planted the knee is in a locked position. In this position the medial and lateral collateral ligaments and the anterior cruciate ligaments are taunt, thereby increasing their chance of injury

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6

What common mechanism holds together immovable joints such as skull sutures and the gomphoses, holding teeth in their alveoli? (chapter question)

The common mechanism that holds together immovable joints is dense fibrous connective tissue. For the skull has the sutural ligament. The teeth have a periodontal ligament.

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7

The function of a bursa is to (chapter question)

reduce friction between a bone and a tendon and absorb shock

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8

Which of the following is not a function of synovial fluid? (chapter question)

increase osmotic pressure within joint

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9

how does synovial fluid provide nutrients in the synovial joint

Synovial fluid circulates throughout the joint when the joint moves. This nourishes the tissues, distributes dissolved gasses, and removes wastes.

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10

what is the role of the menisci

They are pads of fibrocartilage that subdivide the synovial cavity, help keep the bones in the right position

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11

what is the definition of bony fusion

the joint forms where two bones fuse into one

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12

what is the definition of fibrous joint

the joint is held by fibrous tissue

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13

what is the definition of cartilaginous joint

the joint is held by cartilage

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14

what is the definition of synovial joint

contains synovial membranes and fluid

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15

where are gomphosis joints found

they bind the teeth to the bony sockets in the maxilla and mandible

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16

what are the different classifications of joints based off of the type of tissue that binds them together

bony fusion, fibrous joint, cartilaginous joint, synovial joint

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17

what is the name of the joints that are diarthrosis

synovial joints

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18

where are synovial joints found

at the end of long bones

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19

what is a joint that has no movement

synarthrosis

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20

what are the types of joints that fall under the category of synarthrosis joints

synostosis, sutures, gomphosis, synchondrosis

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21

what category of joint are synostosis joints

bony fusion

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22

what is an example of a synostosis joint

metopic suture

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23

what is the classification of suture joints

fibrous joint

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24

what is an example of suture joint

sutures in the skull

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25

what is the classification of the gomposis joint

fibrous joint

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26

what is the classification of the synchondrosis joint

cartilaginous joint

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27

what is an example of the synchondrosis joint

epiphyseal plate and where the ribs connect to the costal cartilage

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28

what is the name of a freely movable joint

diarthrosis

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29

what is the name of a slightly moveable joint

amphiarthrosis

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30

what types of joints fall under the category amphiarthrosis joints

syndesmosis and symphysis

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31

what is an example of a syndesmosis joint

joint between the fibula and tibia

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32

what category of joint does the syndesmosis joint fall under

fibrous joint

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33

what is an example of a symphysis joint

intervertebral disk, disk between the pubic bones

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34

what category of joint does the symphysis joint fall under

cartilaginous joint

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35

The broad, relatively flat portion of the clavicle that articulates with the scapula is the

acromial end

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36

what portion of the clavicle connects to the manubrium

sternal end

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37

what structures on the clavicle are used for attachment sites for the ligmanets of the shoulder

conoid tubercle and the costal tuberosity

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38

The ____ of the radius assists in stabilizing the wrist joint

styloid process

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39

the ____ of the radius is the attachment site of the biceps brachii

radial tuberosity

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40

what does the olecranon process form

the superior lip of the trochlear notch

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41

on which bone is the olecranon process located

ulna

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42

what structure does the coronoid process form

the inferior lip of the trochlear notch

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43

on what bone is the coronoid process located

ulna

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44

Why are fractures of the clavicle so common? (chapter question)

Fractures of the medial portion of the clavicle are common because a fall on the palm of an outstretched hand produces compressive forces that are conducted to the clavicle and its articulation with the manubrium. The clavicle is a thin bone that can be broken easily.

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45

how many carpal bones are there

eight

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46

what are the proximal carpal bones

scaphoid, lunate, triquetrum, and pisiform

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47

what are the distal carpal bones

trapezium, trapezoid, capitate, and hamate

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48

Which of the following is not a carpal bone (chapter question)

-cuboid

-scaphoid

-hamate

-triquetrum

cuboid

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49

Structural characteristics of the pelvic girdle that allow it to bear the body’s weight include (chapter question)

  • heavy bones.

  • stable joints.

  • limited range of movement.

  • all of the above at some joints.

all of the above at some joints

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50

The protuberance that you can feel on the lateral side of the ankle is the (chapter question)

lateral malleolus

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51

Why is the tibia, but not the fibula, involved in weight transfer to the ankle and foot? (chapter question)

  • The tibia is part of the knee joint and is involved in the transfer of weight to the ankle and foot.

  • The fibula is excluded from the knee joint and does not transfer way to the ankle and foot.

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52

Why would a person who has osteoporosis be more likely to suffer a broken hip than a broken shoulder? (chapter question)

The hip helps support the body’s weight and weakening of it can result in it breaking under the weight of the body. The shoulder is not a load-bearing joint and is subject to the same stress as the hip.

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53

How would a forensic scientist decide whether a partial skeleton found in the forest is that of a male or a female? (chapter question)

Many skull characteristics would reveal the sex of the individual, but there are also characteristics in other skeletal structures, such as the robustness of the bones, the angles at which the pubic bones meet, the width of the pelvis, and the angles of the femurs.

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54

what are the basic features of the synovial joint

articular capsule, fibrous joint capsule, synovial membrane, articular cartilage, hyaline cartilage, joint cavity, and synovial fluid

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55

what type of cartilage makes up the articular cartilage

hyaline cartilage

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56

what is the role of articular cartilage in the synovial joint

it allows bones to artculate without friction

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57

what is the joint cavity filled with

synovial fluid

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58

what secretes synovial fluid

synovial membranes

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59

what is the function of synovial fluid

it acts like a lubricant on the articulating cartilage

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60

how are joints grouped together

by the range of movement possible at the junctions between bones

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61

what are the accessory structures found in complex joints

menisci, fat pad, extracapsular ligament, intracapsular ligament, bursa

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62

what is the motion that extends the leg out

extension

<p>extension</p>
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63

what is the motion that bends the leg back

flexion

<p>flexion </p>
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64

what motion is hyperextension

moving even further past the extension point

<p>moving even further past the extension point </p>
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65

what motion brings the leg closer to the body

adduction

<p>adduction </p>
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66

what motion brings the leg further from the body

abduction

<p>abduction </p>
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67

what motion are arm cicles

circumduction

<p>circumduction </p>
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68

what motion is rotating your entire arm face-up and then face-down

rotation

<p>rotation </p>
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69

what motion is rotating your hand to be palm side up

supination

<p>supination </p>
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70

what motion rotates the hand palm-side down

pronation

<p>pronation </p>
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71

what motion raises the shoulders

elevation

<p>elevation </p>
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72

what motion lowers the shoulders

depression

<p>depression </p>
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73

what motion pushes the head forward

protraction

<p>protraction </p>
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74

what motion pulls the head back

retraction

<p>retraction </p>
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75

what is the function of the fat pad

keeps the ligament in place

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76

where is the extracapsular ligament located

outside of the joint capsule

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77

where are the intracapsular ligaments located

inside the joint capsule

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78

what is the bursa

it a membrane sack filled with fluid that can slide and move

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79

what is the purpose of the bursa

takes up space in the joint and helps keep the bones in the right position, allows the membranes to roll and slide past one another as the knee moves

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80

how are synovial joints classified

according to their type and range of motion

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81

what defines the motion in synovial joints

their structure

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82

what are the types of synovial joints

ball and socket, ellipsoidal, gliding, hinge, pivot, and saddle

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83

the head of the femur rotating in the acetabulum (located on the hipbone) is what type of joint

ball and socket joint

<p>ball and socket joint</p>
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84

the radius and ulna rotating with the scaphoid and lunate is what type of joint

ellipsoidal joint

<p>ellipsoidal joint </p>
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85

the carpal bones sliding aginst one another is what type of joint

gliding joint

<p>gliding joint</p>
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86

the ulna rotating with the humerus is an example of what type of joint

hinge joint

<p>hinge joint </p>
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87

what type of joint is the dens of the axial vertebrae rotating with the atlas

pivot joint

<p>pivot joint</p>
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88

what type of joint is the thumb (the first metacarpal roating with the trapezium

saddle joint

<p>saddle joint</p>
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89

____ enable a wide variety of body movements

joints

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90

why is each muscle in your body an organ

becuase it is comprised of a different types of tissue

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91

what can every skeletal muscle be subdivided into

fascicles

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92

what surrounds and separates each fascicle

connective tissue

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93

what can fascicles be further divided into

individual muscle fibers which are the muscle cells

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94

what is another name for a muscle fiber

muscle cell

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95

what binds the muscle together

layers of connective tissue

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96

what is the epimysium

dense fibrous connective tissue that surrounds the entire muscle

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97

what is the epimysium connected to and surrounded by

the deep fascia

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98

what type of tissue is the deep fascia

dense fibrous connective tissue

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99

what does the perimysium surround

it surrounds each fascicle

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100

what fibers does the perimysium contain

both collagen and elastic fibers

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