Lesson 5c. Radiate Animals

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Phylum Cnidaria

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Phylum Cnidaria

Phylum Ctenophora

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Radiate animals: Phylum Ctenophora

These phyla are characterized by radial or biradial symmetry

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Radiate animals: Phylum Ctenophora

their bodies are arranged around a central axis

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Biradial symmetry

_____ means that the body can be divided into mirrored halves ONLY along 2 planes that pass through the central axis

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Both phyla have two well developed germ layers (endoderm and ectoderm), a third layer, mesoderm is present in some

General Characteristics of both Phyla: Phylum Ctenopora and Phylum Cnidaria

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phylum Cnidaria, gastrovascular cavity

_________They have an internal body cavity called _______ with a single opening that acts as both mouth and anus

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tentacles

Most radiates have _____ that aid in food capture

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Radiates, protoneurons, nerve net, central nervous system

_________have the simplest form of true nerve cells (__) but nerves are arranged as a _______ with no _____

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Radiates

____ have the simplest forms of sense organs

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Statocyst, Ocelli

______ maintain equilibrium and _____ are photosynthetic

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Muscular contractions or ciliary comb plates

Radiates can move by _____ or ____, but most forms are best adapted for floating or being carries by currents

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classes hydrozoa, scyphozoa, and anthozoa

Phylum Cnidaria classes:

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-all are aquatic and radial symmetry

  • primarily sessile or floating

  • more specialize than sponges

  • contains nematocysts (stinging cells) that is found on cells called Cnidocytes

  • have two body forms: Polyp and Medusa

Characteristics of Cnidaria:

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Phylum Cnidaria, nematocysts, cnidocytes

____ contains ____( stinging cells) that are found in cells called _____

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Polyp and Medusa

Two body forms of Phylum Cnidaria:

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Polyp

tubular body with tentacles: example hydra

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Medusa

bell shaped and free swimming: example jellyfish

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Class Hydrozoa, velum

________members of this class exhibit the polyp or medusa form. the medusa form has a ______ (ring of tissues that is found at the base of the tentacles)

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Velum

ring of tissues that is found at the base of the tentacles)

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hydra obelia portuguese man of war

Representatives of Class Hydrozoa:

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Hydra

___ are the freshwater Hydrozoa representative

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Hydra

Typically sessile polyps

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underside of aquatic leaves and lily pads

the normal habitat for hydra is the _______ and ____ in the water of ponds and streams

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16

Hydra are found throughout the world with ___ species in North America alone

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25-30

Hydra body plan: its body can extend to a length of _____ millimeter's

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Hydra

it is a cylindrical tube with a stalk like end and an attachment end

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Basal disk

the _____ is the attachment end that contains gland cells to allow adhesion

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hypostome, gastrovascular cavity

The mouth (_____) opens to the _____

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Hydra

body forms: six to ten tentacles surround the mouth.

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Tentacles, nematocysts

____ are hollow and extendable

  • they contain _______ (coiled stinging cells used to get food and provide protection)

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Ectoderm,

  • Epitheliomuscular cells,

  • Interstitial cells,

  • Gland cells,

  • Cnidocytes

  • nerve cells

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Endoderm Mesoglea

Body wall of Hydra:

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Ectoderm

outer layer or epidermis; contains many types of cells

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Epitheliomuscular cells

responsible for muscular contractions

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undifferentiated stem cells that become most other types of cells

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Gland cells

secretes an adhesive substance that aids in the attachment process

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Cnidocytes

____ contain nematocysts

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Nerve cells

____ multipolar neurons

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Endoderm

gastrodermis: inner layer that contains muscular, gland and interstitial cell

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muscular, gland and interstitial cell

Gastrodermis:

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Locomotion Response Digestion Excretion Respiration Nervous Reproduction

Processes of the Hydra:

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Locomotion

floats and moves by somersaulting motion

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Response

____when disturbed, it will contract and form a small ball

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Gastrovascular cells, Gastrodermal cells

Digestion: food enters the ______ that is lined with _____

  • some discrete digestive enzymes that partially digest food

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Gastrodermal cells

Digestion of hydra: partially digested food is taken in by the ____ when digestion is complete

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Excretion, Metabolic wastes and carbon dioxide

______Digestive wastes are expelled through the mouth

  • _____ and ____ are discharged into water

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Respiration

oxygen diffuses from water into cells

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nerve net, epidermis and gastrodermis

Nervous contains a _____ that consists of interconnected nerve cells located at the base of the _____ and ___

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nerve net

this is a primitive type of nervous system

  • it controls movement and tentacles

  • NO BRAIN

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Budding or regeneration

Reproduction of Hydra occurs by asexual reproduction through _____ or ___

  • miniature versions break off of mature organisms and grow to maturity

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gonads, autumn

Reproduction of Hydra occurs by sexual reproduction when temporary _____- develop in the ___

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Reproduction, eggs, sperm

________the ovaries produce ____ and the testis produce _____

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cyst, warm weather

The developing embryos are encased in a ____to protect them from harsh winters. ______ stimulates the "hatching" of new hydras

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Class Schyphozoa (Scyphozoa)

_____ means cup animal

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cup animal

Scyphozoa mean _____

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Jellyfish (Aurelia)

The most common representative of Class Scyphozoa are_____

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Class Scyphozoa _____ form is for sexual reprooduction

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Planula larva

Class Scyphozoa zygotes develop into a ______ which swims around and then settles to form the polyp form

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Class Scyphozoa

The polyp form produces more of the medusa form

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nematocyst

The Jellyfish, tentacles of the medusa have a ______ that gives human painful stings

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toxin, toxic

all jellyfish contains _____ but some ae more ___ than others

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Bos jellies

many of the ______ are considered to be more dangerous

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Irukandji jellyfish

____ is considered the most deadly of the jellyfish (There are actually multiple species)

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Irukandji jellyfish

it is only one centimeter cubes at its largest, while many are 5mm or less in diameter

  • its small size makes it almost invisible in the marine waters off of Australis coast.

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Planula larva polyp strobila ephyra medua-mobile phase

Life cycle of a jellyfish

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Class Anthozoa, sea anemones and corals

____ means "flower animal"

  • common representatives are the ____ and ___

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Anthozoans

____lack a medusa stage

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marine

All anthozoans are ____, found in both deep and shallow water, and vary in size

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Anthozoans

____are solitary or colonial

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Anthozoans, gastrovascular cavity

____ contain a large gastrovascular cavity that is separated by divisions called ____, which are inward projections of the body wall

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polyp, hydrozoan polyp

the ____ of sea anemones are larger and heavier than ____

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Pedal discs

Sea anemones attach to shells, rocks or timber by _____. Some burrow in sand or mud

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Oral disc

Sea anemones, a crown of tentacles surrounds the flat ____

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Pharynx

Sea anemones, a slit shaped mouth leads into a _____

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Gastrovascular cavity, Primary septa

Sea anemones _________ is divided into 6 pairs of _______

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when in danger

________, water is rapidly expelled through pores as the anemones contracts to a small size

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sea anemones, mucus

Some anemones fishes shelter in _____ and have a skin ____ that protects them from triggering nematocysts

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polyp body form

Corals display only the _____

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Coral reefs

____ have a great productivity , rivaled only by tropical rain forest

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Calcium carbonate

living plants and animals are limited to the top layer above the _____ deposits

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global warming, carbon dioxide

coral reefs are suffering from ______ and high concentrations of _____

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Corals

____also has a large economic value

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hard skeleton

when corals dies, the _______ remains

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jewelry

the skeletons of corals produce coral reefs and can also be used to create _____

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-composed of fewer than 100 species, all of which are marine and primarily found in warm waters

Characteristics of Ctenophora

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Ctenophora

all are formed from 8 rows of comblike plates that function in locomotion

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Ctenophora

Has a combination of radial and biradial symmetry

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mesoglea

Ctenophora has endoderm and ectoderm with ___ in between

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nematocyst, colloblasts

Ctenophora does not contain ____ but do contain adhesive cells called ______ that re used to capture prey

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Class Tentacula

has tentacles that may or may not have sheaths into which they retract

  • some have flatten tentacles for creeping

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Pleurobrachia

Representative of Class Tentacula:

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Statocyst

Body forms of Class Tentacula: -its body is 1.5 - 2 cm in diameter and has a sense organs called ______ near the mouth

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comb rows, comb plates

Class tentacula its surface has 8 equally spaced bands called _____ that hav long fused cilia called ____

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cilia

movement is accomplished by the wavelike beating of the ___

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two

Class Tentacula has ____ tentacles that are very long and extensible that may also be retracted into tentacle sheaths

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colloblasts

Class Tentacula the surface of the tentacles are covered with _____ (glue cells) that could catch or hold small animals

  • Pleurobrachia

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gastrovascular system

Class Tentacula, (digestion) has a _____ that consists of a mouth, pharynx, stomach and a system of gastrovascular canals

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intracellular and extracellular, 2 anal canals

Digestion of Class Tentacula is both : 2 undigested waste leaves the body through ____

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both occur through the body surface

Respiration and excretion of class tentacula

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the epidermis contains numerous sensory cells that allow the organism to be sensitive to chemicals and other stimuli

Nervous and sensory of class Tentacula

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