NFS284 Midterm 1

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Macronutrient list

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198 Terms

1

Macronutrient list

Carbohydrates, Lipids, Protein

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Amount of macronutrients needed in body

Large amounts (10-100g)

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3

Micronutrients list

Vitamins and Minerals

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4

Amount of micronutrients needed in body

Small amounts

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5

Carbohydrates (kcal/g)

4 kcal/g

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6

Lipids (kcal/g)

9 kcal/g

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7

Protein (kcal/g)

4 kcal/g

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8

Define starch

A digestible carbohydrate that is a source of energy. Found in rice, wheat, corn, potato

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9

Define triacylglycerides

Glycerol + 3 fatty acids, major chemical form of lipids

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10

Define PUFA

Fatty acid containing more than 2 double bonds.

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11

PUFA sources

Canola oil and soybean oil

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12

Define MUFA

Fatty acid containing only one double bond.

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13

MUFA sources

Oleic acid (omega 9) in olive oil

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14

Essential Fatty acids

Linoneic acid (omega 6) and alpha linoleic acid (omega 3)

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15

Fatty acids derived from alpha linoleic acid

EPA and DHA; found in fish and fish oils

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16

Define saturated and trans fats

Type of fatty acid associated with risk of disease

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17

Define dietary fibre

An indigestible carbohydrate that can be fermented by the microflora, found in whole grains and legumes

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18

Define glucose

A monosaccharide circulating in blood that is source of energy for brain

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19

Define sucrose or high fructose corn syrup

Disaccharide of fructose and glucose, beverages using this to sweeten linked to obesity

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20

Define vitamins

Organic micronutrients required for metabolic processes

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21

Fat soluble vitamins stored in

Liver and adipose tissue

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22

Fat soluble vitamins depletion rate

NOT rapidly depleted

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23

Fat soluble vitamins toxicity

If extremely high can have toxic effects

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24

Fat soluble vitamins include

Vitamins D E A K

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25

Water soluble vitamins stored in

Not stored in body

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26

Water soluble vitamins depletion rate

Rapidly depleted except B12

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27

Water soluble vitamins include

Vitamins B and C

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28

Define calcium

Mineral important for bone health

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29

Define sodium

Mineral used in processed food which may raise blood pressure

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30

Define iron

Low intake of this mineral may result in anemia

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31

Most common micronutrient deficiency in the world

Iron deficiency

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32

Define iodine

Low intake of the mineral can result in goitre

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33

Second most common micronutrient deficiency in the world

Iodine

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34

Define functional food

Foods that promote health benefits beyond basic nutrition

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35

Two carotenoids that may reduce risk of macular degeneration

Lutein and zeaxanthin

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36

Canadian Healthy Eating Index CHEI

Measures conformity to Canada's Food Guide

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37

CHEI value if perfect adherence

100

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38

Family of vegetables that include broccoli, cauliflower, bok choy and cabbage

Cruciferous vegetables

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39

Phytochemicals that broccoli, cauliflower and bok choy have

Sulfur containing phytochemicals and indoles

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40

Effect of sulfur containing phytochemicals

Boost activity of enzymes that detoxify carcinogens

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Effect of indoles

Inactivation of estrogen: estrogen can lead to cancer.

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42

Compounds found in garlics and onion

Alliums

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43

Effect of alliums

Boost activity of cancer destroying systems, protect against oxidative damage, lower blood cholesterol and blood pressure

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Phytochemicals in green tea

Polyphenols such as tannins and catechins

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45

Effect of tannins and catechins

Reduces risk of certain types of cancer

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46

Polyphenolic compounds found in blueberries and grapes

Anthocyanins (reservatrol for grapes?)

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Polyphenolic compound associated with longevity

Reservatrol

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48

Why bread made from whole grain flour has more phytochemicals

Bran and germ portions that are removed contain many polyphenols

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49

Define Estimated Average Requirement (EAR)

Nutrient intake that meets requirement of 50% individuals in a group

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50

Determining EAR

Choose biochemical criterion that allows you to determine intake at which requirement is being met

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51

Depletion-Repletion Experiment

Lower levels of vitamin, then add vitamin in until saturation to establish EAR

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52

What does it mean if individual's nutrient intake = EAR

50% chance they are meeting requirement for a nutrient

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53

Define Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA)

2 standard deviations out from EAR: ensures 98% probability of meeting requirement

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54

EAR Cut point method

Place EAR onto intake distribution to determine prevalence of adequate intake

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55

According to Health Canada, a population has adequate intake if a maximum _____% of people are under EAR

10

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56

Define Adequate Intake (AI)

An estimate of average nutrient intake by a healthy population

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57

Define Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL)

Highest level of habitual nutrient intake that is unlikely to pose risk of adverse effects

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58

Define Estimated Energy Requirement (EER)

Amount of calories required to meet daily energy needs

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Variables involved in EER

Age, weight, height, gender, physical activity

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60

Define sedentary

Less than 30 min intentional exercise/day

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61

Define low active

Walking 30 mins at 6.5 km/hr everyday

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Define active

Walking 1 hour 45 mins at 6.5 km/hr everyday

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63

Define very active

Walking 4 hours 15 mins at 6.5 km/hr everyday

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64

Define Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges (AMDR)

% of total calories required to have equal distribution of food groups

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65

AMDR of Carbs

45-65%

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AMDR of fats

20-35%

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AMDR of protein

10-35%

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AMDR of saturated fat

10%

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AMDR of trans fat

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70

Criticisms of CFG

1. Not enough emphasis on reducing sugar

2. Not enough emphasis on TYPE of fat consumed

3. Not enough emphasis on plant based protein

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Top sources of sugar

Fruit, Soft drinks, Sugars, Milk, Juice

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Scientific Evidence for sugar disadvantages

Sugar sweetened beverages contribute to weight gain, type 2 diabetes, CVD and hypertension

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Sugar controversy

Extremely high levels of sugar result in altered liver functions

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Sugar: CFG mentions

Advise no added sugar in veg/fruits and meat, and grain products naturally low in sugars. Choose fruit over juice

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Fat problems

9 kcal/g compared to other nutrients 4 kcal/g; replace sat and trans fat with PUFA

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Top sources of fat

Pizza, burgers, hot dogs, sweet baked goods, milk

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77

Scientific evidence for fat disadvantages

Saturated fat linked to increased CVD , but depends what you replace saturated fat with.

If replaced sat fat with carbs, no change in CVD risk

If replaced sat fat with PUFA, lower CVD risk

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78

Fat: CFG mentions

- Advise no added fat in veg/fruits and meat

- Choose grain products lower in fat

- Choose skim milk.

- Amount of unsat fat recommended listed

- Types of oil recommended

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79

Scientific evidence for red meat disadvantages

Associated with harmful health outcomes, especially if processed

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80

Meat: CFG mentions

Meat alternatives such as beans suggested

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81

What is required on all food labels

Name, amount, manufacturer, best before date, ingredient list, nutrition facts table

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Items on the nutrition fact table to try and avoid (aim for less than 5% DV)

Fats, Cholesterol, Sodium, Sugars

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Items on the nutrition facts table to try and acquire more of (aim for more than 15% DV)

Fibre, Vitamin A, Vitamin C

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84

Define Daily Value

Standard amount of nutrient needed in a day

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85

Changes to DV due to DRI: Fat

Used to be 30% of energy, now increased to 35%

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86

Changes to DV due to DRI: Dietary Fibre

Proposed new DV reflects AI (adequate intake) for adults older than 19

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87

Changes to DV due to DRI: Sodium

Changed to UL for adults

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Changes to DV due to DRI: Sugars

Set at median level (100g) to encourage top 50% of Canadians to reduce consumption

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Changes to additional micronutrients depended on...

RDA and AI

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90

Define population coverage

From a set of data, assign a DV with the highest value across all age groups and genders to ensure all people will be covered.

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91

Changes to NFT include (5 differences)

1. Font size increase for serving size and calories

2. Group macronutrients together

3. Only provide DV for nutrients that should be limited

4. Remove Vitamin A and C: deficiencies are rare

5. Include absolute weight of nutrients in mg as well

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92

Current ingredient list display

Ingredients listed in order by weight, but similar groups may be scattered throughout the list

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93

Proposed ingredient display

1. Group ingredients by weight and food group

2. Use bullet points, white background to improve readability

3. Distinguishing between sugars and sugar

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94

Nutrient content claim: approval

Does not need approval from Health Canada as long as claim is truthful

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95

Nutrient function claim: approval

Does not need approval but if a new claim, prior consultation is recommended

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Disease risk reduction / therapeutic claims: approval

Prior approval required from Health Canada

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97

Nutrient content claim: "free" (fat, sugar and trans fat)

Sugar/Fat =

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98

Nutrient content claim: "low" (fat, cholesterol and sodium)

Fat = < 3 g/ serving

Cholesterol = < 20 mg cholesterol AND < 2g saturated fat / serving

Sodium = < 140 mg/ 100g of food

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99

Nutrient content claim: "lean"

< 10g fat per 100 g

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100

Nutrient content claim: "extra lean"

< 7.5 g fat per 100 g

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