Bio Exam #2

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Cancer cell differences

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101 Terms

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Cancer cell differences

Divide when they shouldn’t, invade surrounding tissue, move to other location

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Cancer

Unregulated cell division

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Tumor

mass of cells with no function

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Benign tumor

Doesn’t affect surrounding tissue

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Malignant tumor (cancerous)

Invades surrounding tissues

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Metastasis

Cell breaks away from malignant tumor and starts a new cancer at another location

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How do metastatic cells travel?

Circulatory system or lymphatic system

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Cancer risk factors

Tobacco use, carcinogens, alcohol consumption, high fat/low fiber diet, lack of exercise, increasing age

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Asexual reproduction

One parent, offspring are genetically identical to parent

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Sexual reproduction

Gametes are combined from two parents, offspring are genetically different from one another and parents

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Chromosome

Long strand of DNA tightly wrapped around proteins

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Centromere

Duplicated chromosomes are held together here

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Sister chromatids

Duplicated DNA held together at the centromere

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DNA replication

When DNA is replicated to prepare for cell division

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Karyotype

A type of diagram showing chromosomes of a person (chromosomes are visible during mitosis)

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DNA Polymerase

Enzyme that replicated DNA forming covalent bonds between nucleotides on the backbone of a new strand and hydrogen bonds between nucleotides on different DNA strands

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Semiconservative replication

When two identical daughter molecules are created, each with a part of the original

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Cell cycle

The lifecycle of the cell

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Interphase

Phase where DNA replicates

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Mitosis

Phase where copied chromosomes are moved into daughter cells

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Cytokinesis

Phase where cell splits into two different daughter cells

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Phases of Interphase

G1: cell growth, organelles duplicate

S: DNA replicates

G2: cell makes proteins needed to complete mitosis

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Phases of Mitosis

Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase

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Cytokinesis in plants and animals

Plants: cell wall forms between cells, from cellulose

Animals: proteins pinch original cell into two new cells

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Checkpoints

Points during interphase and mitosis where proteins survey condition of cell, must pass to proceed with cell division

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G1 checkpoint

Are growth factors present, is DNA damaged, is cell large enough and has nutrients

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G2 checkpoint

Did DNA replicate properly

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Metaphase checkpoint

Have chromosomes attached properly to microtubles

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Proto-oncogenes

Genes that produce proteins to control the cell cycle

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Mutation

Change in the sequence of DNA

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Oncogenes

Mutated proto-oncogenes

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Tumor suppressor genes

Genes for proteins that will stop cell division if something isn’t right

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Angiogenesis

When tumors get their own blood supply

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Loss of contact inhibition

Cells pile up on each other

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Loss of anchorage dependence

Allows cancer cells to move to another location

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Immortalized

Cells that have no fixed number of cell divisions

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Multiple hit model

Cancer development requires multiple mutations

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38

Meiosis differences

Cell division in gonads to produce gametes, reduces number of chromosomes in each cell, creates haploids instead of diploids

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Phases of Meiosis

Meiosis I and Meiosis II

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Meiosis I

Separates duplicated homologous chromosomes into two cells (may have crossing over), resulting cells are haploid

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Meiosis II

Separates sister chromatids of a homologous pair into individual cells, one chromosome per cell, results in gamete

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Crossing over

Exchange of equivalent portions of chromosomes between members of homologous pair (occurs in prophase I

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Random alignment

The ways that different pairs of chromosomes align and get separated during meiosis I is random

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Nondisjunction

Failure of homologues to separate normally during meiosis

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Trisomy

Gamete with one too many chromosome

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Monosomy

Gamete with one too few chromosome

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Gene

Short region of DNA molecule that code a certain protein

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Allele

Specific version of a gene

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Autosome

The main chromosomes (1-22)

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Sex chromosomes

X or Y chromosome

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Diploid

Two copies of each chromosome (somatic cells)

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Haploid

Only one copy of each chromosome (reproductive cells)

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Phenotype

Expression of a genetic trait

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Genotype

Genetic make up (genes on the chromosome)

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Homozygote

Same two alleles (AA or aa)

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Heterozygote

Two different alleles (Aa)

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Johann “Gregor” Mendel

Father of genetics

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Ways variation is created

Mutation, random alignment, crossing over, fertilization

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Independent Assortment

Each homologous chromosome is separated without relation to the other

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Linkage

Two genes on the same chromosome (not independently assorted, segregate together

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Polygenic Traits

Traits determined by two or more genes

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Dihybrid crosses

Crosses involving two traits

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Incomplete dominance

Two dominant allele copies needed for full phenotype, heterozygote phenotype is intermediate to the homozygotes

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Codominance

Neither allele is dominant to the other, heterozygote shows both traits at once (no blending)

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Multiple alleleism

When there are multiple alleles for one gene

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Sex-linked genes

Genes located on the sex chromosomes

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Pedigree

Family tree that shows the inheritance of traits over several generations

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DNA Fingerprinting

Equivalent to human barcode or fingerprint and helps with identification of individuals

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DNA fingerprinting steps

  1. DNA isolated from tissue sample

  2. DNA cut into fragments with enzymes

  3. Fragments separated on basis of size and visualized (each is unique)

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PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction)

DNA mixed with nucleotides, primers, Taq polymerase, and is heated, which splits DNA into complementary strands. Taq polymerase then builds a new complementary strand and process repeats

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Overhang

DNA is cut with “sticky ends”, think cut diagonally but evenly

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Blunt ends

DNA is cut straight across

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Gel electrophoresis

DNA fragments are separated based on size, electric current is applied to agarose gel and the smaller fragments will run faster through the gel

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Protein synthesis

Using instructions on a gene to create proteins

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RNA (Ribonucleic Acid)

Single strand with nucleotides composed of ribose and four nitrogenous bases (same as DNA but U replaces T)

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Transcription

Making RNA in the nucleus, produces messenger RNA (mRNA)

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Translation

Making proteins in the cytoplasm

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RNA polymerase

Enzyme that zips down the gene and matches RNA nucleotides with DNA nucleotides

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Promoter

Region where the RNA polymerase knows to start

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Translation requirements

mRNA, rRNA, tRNA

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Ribosomes

Made of rRNA and is made of a large subunit and a small subunit

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Transfer RNA (tRNA)

Carries amino acids and matches anticodon with codon on mRNA, in cytoplasm

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Process of Translation

Ribosomes attach to mRNA at promoter region, ribosomes allow tRNA to match anticodons to mRNA codons, the two tRNA’s next to each other form a bond between their amino acids

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Stop Codon

Sequence of three base pairs that indicate the end of the RNA to be translated

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Outcomes of mutation to protein

  1. No change in protein

  2. Non-functional protein

  3. Different protein

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Substitution

Changes one amino acid

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Insertion or deletion

Causes frameshift

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Regulating Gene Expression

Turning a gene or a set of genes on or off

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Genetic Engineering

Altering hereditary traits by molecular biological techniques

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rBGH

Growth hormones that increase body size and milk production in cows

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Restriction enzymes

Enzymes used in bacteria as a defense. Cuts DNA at specific sequences

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Plasmid

Small circular piece of bacterial DNA that exists separate from bacterial chromosome, can ferry a gene into a cell

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Recombinant

Material that has been genetically engineered

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Steps in creating rBGH

  1. Remove gene from cow chromosome

  2. Insert BGH gene into bacterial plasmid

  3. Insert recombinant plasmid into bacterial cell, which creates millions of copies of rBGH gene and protein, which is then put into the cows

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Artificial selection

Using selective breeding to change the characteristics of a population

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Transgenic organism

Also called Genetically Modified Organism (GMO), the result of incorporating a gene from one organism to the genome of another

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Benefits of GMO foods

Increase shelf life, yield, or nutritional value

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Stem cells

Undifferentiated cells, in embryo can grow to many different cells and tissues, in adults function as a repair system

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Gene Therapy

Replacement of defective genes with functional genes

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Germ line gene therapy

Embryonic treatment where embryo or every cell is supplied with a functional version of the defective gene

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