clinical final exam

studied byStudied by 1 person
0.0(0)
get a hint
hint

approaches: open

1 / 129

encourage image

There's no tags or description

Looks like no one added any tags here yet for you.

130 Terms

1

approaches: open

cut through skin or membrane

New cards
2

approaches: percutaneous

entry by puncture or minor incision, using instruments

New cards
3

approaches: percutaneous endoscopic

entry by puncture or minor incision, using instruments to VISUALIZE site of procedure

New cards
4

approaches: natural/artifical opening

entry through natural or artifical opening (etc: mouth, vagina)

New cards
5

approaches: natural/artifical opening endoscopic

entry through natural or artifical opening to VISUALIZE site of procedure (etc: mouth, vagina)

New cards
6

approaches: natural/artifical opening with percutaneous endoscopic assistance

entry through natural or artifical opening by puncture/minor incision through skin/membrane

New cards
7

approaches: external

procedure performed directly on skin/membrane by application of external force

New cards
8

paracentesis

  • medical procedure that involves the insertion of a needle or catheter through the abdominal wall to remove fluid from the abdominal cavity, typically performed to relieve abdominal swelling caused by conditions

  • patient lies down and local anesthesia is used to numb the area where the needle or catheter will be inserted

New cards
9

dilation and curettage

  • patient is given general anesthesia, placed in dorsal lithotomy position, prepped, and draped before inserting successive dilators until the cervix is suitable for the suction cannula, which is then inserted to perform suction curettage

  • the removed tissue was sent for pathological testing to exclude endometrial cancer

New cards
10

robot-assisted surgery

  • using robotic technology to perform surgery with precision and control

  • the surgeon controls the robotic arms and instruments to perform the surgery while viewing the procedure on a computer screen

New cards
11

computer assisted surgery (CAS)

set of methods that use computer technology for pre surgical planning, or guiding and preforming surgical interventions

New cards
12

imaging guidance

uses scope to provide direct visualization of body parts

New cards
13

positions: supine

patient lies on back

New cards
14

positions: trendelenburg

position lies on their back on a downward angle, with their head lower than their feet

New cards
15

positions: prone

patent lies on stomach

New cards
16

positions: lateral

patient lies on side

New cards
17

positions: fowler

patient lies on back, as if they are sitting on a chair, with legs bent

New cards
18

positions: lithotomy

patient lies on back with their legs in the air, bent

New cards
19

instruments: rongeur

strongly constructed instrument with a sharp-edged, scoop-shaped tip, used for gouging out bone

New cards
20

instruments: retractor

used to separate the edges of a surgical incision or wound, or to hold back underlying organs

New cards
21

instruments: clamps

used to occlude (e.g. blood vessels)

New cards
22

instruments: stapler

used to place sutures to close skin wounds, connect or remove body parts such as, bowels or lungs

New cards
23

laparoscopic instruments: trocar

instrument with sharply pointed edge used to introduce ports into the abdomen

New cards
24

laparoscopic instruments: endo-catch bag

designed to isolate and contain specimens during laparoscopic surgery

New cards
25

electrosurgery instruments: probe

cut through tissue, destroy tissue, control bleeding

New cards
26

electrosurgery instruments: surgical blade (Bovie/ bovieknife)

allows surgeons to rapidly cauterize and clear operative fields

New cards
27

surgical homeostasis

control of blood loss during surgery

New cards
28

surgical wound closure: sutures

a sterile thread or strand that is stitched through the edges of the wound to hold them together and promote healing

New cards
29

surgical wound closure: staples

thin, stainless steel staples that are inserted into the skin and tissues using a stapler device.

New cards
30

surgical wound closure: adhesives

typically in the form of liquid or semi-liquid substances that are applied to the edges of the wound and form a strong bond as they dry

New cards
31

postoperative drains

placed so the wound can drain freely of blood clots, body fluids, pus, and necrotic material that otherwise would collect in the wound and provide a rich medium for bacterial growth

New cards
32

how drains are inserted

at the operative site and exit through the incision or a separate stab wound adjacent to the incision

New cards
33

how drains are chosen

according to the location of wound, size of wound, and type of drainage anticipated

New cards
34

drains: penrose drain

a thin, flexible tube made of latex or silicone that is used in medical procedures to remove fluid or blood from a surgical site

New cards
35

drains: jackson pratt drain

a soft, flexible tube connected to a bulb-shaped reservoir that creates a gentle suction to help remove fluids

New cards
36

drains: hemovac drain

a clear plastic container with a flexible tube attached to it, used to remove excess fluid, blood, or pus from a surgical site or wound

New cards
37

sanguineous

pertaining to blood, containing blood

New cards
38

serosanguineous

containing or consisting of both blood and serious fluid

New cards
39

serous

thin, clear and a little thicker than water, serous drainage occurs during the healing process of the wound

New cards
40

purulent

producing or containing pus, “milky” in appearance

New cards
41

resection

general term for removal of part, or all, of the body part

New cards
42

stoma/ostomies

an opening of some part of the bowel onto the skin, stool is collected in a bag

New cards
43

lab reports are grouped by…

headings

New cards
44

what lab results typically contain

test, result, range, unit of measure

New cards
45

abnormal results

lower/higher than reference range

New cards
46

critical values

dangerously abnormal

New cards
47

no flag

indicates that the lab result is normal

New cards
48

reference range

results typically seen in normal healthy reference populations

New cards
49

unit of measure

units of measurement that labs use to report results can vary from lab to lab

New cards
50

specimen source

identifies what body substance is being analyzed

New cards
51

lab panels/profiles

represent ordering a group of lab tests at once

New cards
52

basic metabolic panel

helps to identify several common acute conditions

New cards
53

lipid panel

measures different types of fats in your blood

New cards
54

blood gases

measure the levels of oxygen, carbon dioxide, and other gases in your blood to assess how well your lungs and kidneys are working

New cards
55

therapeutic drug monitoring

process of measuring the concentration of a medication in a patient's blood to ensure that it remains within a safe and effective range

New cards
56

pathology

medical specialty that deals with the study of diseases and their effects on the body

New cards
57

diagnosis

info sent by physician that removed the specimen from the patient

New cards
58

gross description

actual appearance of the tissue specimen as viewed by the pathologists' eyes

New cards
59

microscopic description

record of what the pathologist views under the microscope

New cards
60

comments

comment section may include further clarifying information about the diagnosis or inform other physicians that other studies are pending

New cards
61

diagnostic imaging

use of various imaging modalities to aid in the diagnosis of disease

New cards
62

examples of imaging tests

radiation, ultrasound, MRI, x-ray

New cards
63

plain radiography (x-ray)

x-ray beam is passed through the part body to be evaluated

New cards
64

flouroscopy

show organs or structures as they function

New cards
65

Barium Swallow

evaluation of esophagus and stomach

New cards
66

angiography/arteriography

visualization of lumen of blood vessels and organs

New cards
67

CT scans

sequence of x-rays are obtained, each representing a section (slice) of tissue at different levels

New cards
68

pacemakers are classified by the…

number of chambers the device stimulates

New cards
69

2 main examples of cardiac pacemakers

single and dual

New cards
70

permanent pacemakers are self-contained, meaning…

they are battery operated, implanted devices that send electrical stimulation to the heart through one or more implanted leads

New cards
71

cardiac resynchronization therapy pacemakers (CRT-Ps)

long, thin tube that is inserted into a large vein in the body to provide access for medical treatments such as medication administration, blood transfusions, or kidney dialysis

New cards
72

implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD)

electronic device designed to detect and treat life-threatening abnormal heart rhythms

New cards
73

central venous access

provide ready access to the patient's circulation

New cards
74

types of central venous access

peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC), non-tunneled catheter, tunneled catheter, implanatable port/reservoir

New cards
75

different between non-tunneled catheter and tunneled catheter

tunneled is under the skin, non-tunneled isn’t

New cards
76

complications of central line placement

  1. Vascular Injuries: Arterial puncture, Bleeding, Air embolism, Catheter embolus

  2. Cardiac Complications: Cardiac arrhythmias

  3. Thoracic Injuries: Injury to the thoracic duct, Pneumothorax

    1. Nerve Injury: Injury to surrounding nerves

New cards
77

vascular access for hemodialysis

to maximize the amount of blood cleansed during hemodialysis treatments, vascular access allows continuous high volumes of blood flow

New cards
78

AV fistula

an opening or connection between any two parts of the body

New cards
79

AV graft

an artery is connected to a vein using a synthetic tube, or graft, implanted under the skin (usually in the arm)

New cards
80

arterial catheterization (arterial line/A-line)

catheter inserted into an artery to monitor blood-pressure in real time

New cards
81

umbilical catheterization

inserting a catheter into an infant

New cards
82

labor delivery: stage 1

cervical stage  (longest stage)

  • cervix dilated

New cards
83

labor delivery: stage 2

fetal expulsion

  • full dilation until delivery of baby

New cards
84

labor delivery: stage 3

placental expulsion

  • time after delivery to the expulsion of the placenta and membranes

New cards
85

labor delivery: stage 4

uterine contraction

  • hour or two after delivery when the tone of the uterus is reestablished as the uterus contracts again, expelling any remaining contents

New cards
86

cervical exam check for 5 things:

  1. dilation

  2. effacement

  3. station

  4. presentation

  5. fetal stations

New cards
87

dilation

diameter of the cervical opening in centimeters

New cards
88

effacement

thickness of the cervix

New cards
89

station

relationship of the presenting fetal part to the maternal ischial spines

New cards
90

presentation

the anatomic part of the fetus leading through the birth canal

New cards
91

fetal station

the level of the ischial spines in regard to infant’s head approaching

New cards
92

fetal monitoring

assess fetal wellbeing in terms of oxygenation

New cards
93

methods of delivery: spontaneous (manually-assisted)

mom pushes, doctor handles

New cards
94

methods of delivery: forcep-assisted

forceps (resembles two large salad spoons) guide baby’s head out of the birth canal

New cards
95

methods of delivery: vacuum extraction

soft plastic cup is applied to the baby's head and stays in place by suction, guides baby through birth canal

New cards
96

methods of delivery: cesarean

delivery of a fetus through a surgically created incision in the anterior uterine wall

New cards
97

perineal or genital trauma

caused by either tearing or episiotomy; require repair

New cards
98

degrees of tears: 1st

injury to skin only

New cards
99

degrees of tears: 2nd

injury to the perineal muscles but not the anal sphincter

New cards
100

degrees of tears: 3rd

injury to the perineum involving the anal sphincter complex

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 10 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 9 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 19 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 6 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 60 people
Updated ... ago
4.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 3 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 9 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 8 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard31 terms
studied byStudied by 4 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard133 terms
studied byStudied by 3 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard55 terms
studied byStudied by 16 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard48 terms
studied byStudied by 6 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard71 terms
studied byStudied by 155 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(4)
flashcards Flashcard185 terms
studied byStudied by 35 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard26 terms
studied byStudied by 155 people
Updated ... ago
4.5 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard27 terms
studied byStudied by 3 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)