Epithelium (HAnat/Phys) - 11/07/22

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1

Cells

What makes tissue?

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2

Organs

What else does tissues make?

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3

Systems

Organs make what?

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4

Organisms

Systems make what?

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5

Carry on the same function, make tissues

Cells that ____________ and work together make _______

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6

Tissue

A group of similar cells that perform the same function

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7

Specific jobs

Cells specialize in ______

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8

Interweave to form the "fabric" of the body

What do Tissues do?

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9

Epithelial, Connective, Muscle, and nervous tissue

What are the primary tissue types?

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10

Heart and liver cells

What are examples of tissue?

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11

If a small group of cells have a very specific job, then other cells can't easily replace them if something goes wrong in the body

Hazards of cell specialization

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12

Heart cells in the muscles can't be replaced if many or all of the heart cells in the muscles die from cancer (heart failure)

What is an example of the hazards of cell specialization?

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13

Work together make tissue

Cells that _______ make ______

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14

Epithelial tissue or epithelium

Epithelial cells make what?

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15

Lines the body, covers the body, and makes up the glandular tissue

What are the 3 jobs of epithelial tissue?

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16

Epithelial Cells

Skin cells that cover the outside of the body and lines the internal surfaces of the organs

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17

Epithelial tissue/skin

Anything that exits or enters our body must pass through _______

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18

Selectively permeable

Cells are ________

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19

Protection, Absorption, Filtration, and Secretion

What are the 4 epithelial functions?

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20

Osmosis and diffusion

Cells on the skin control _______ and _____

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21

Covering/Epithelial tissue

What is the 1st line of defense for our entire body?

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22

Osmosis

Diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane

<p>Diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane</p>
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23

Diffusion

Movement of molecules from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration

<p>Movement of molecules from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration</p>
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24

Epithelial does not let harmful things into the body like bacteria

Protection

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25

Absorbs vitamin and nutrients

Absorption

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26

Vitamin D from the sun, UV rays, heat

What are examples of absorption?

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27

Filters what goes in and what goes out; only takes in good things like nutrients and vitamins

Filtration

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28

Sweats; the passage of material formed by a cell to its exterior

Secretion

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29
  1. epithelium of the skin protects us against bacterial and chemical damage

  2. epithelium lining of the respiratory tract has cillia, which sweeps dust and other debris away from the lungs

  3. epithelium specialized to absorb substances lines some digestive system organs such as the stomach

  4. epithelium in the lungs absorbs oxygen and exhales the bad stuff

What are 4 examples of epithelium functions?

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30

Glandular Epithelium

Composed of cells that are specialized to produce and secrete substances

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31

Gland

Is a single cell or group of cells (tissue) that is adapted for secretion

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32

Proteins

Secretion contains ______

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33

Pituitary, thyroid, adrenal, ovaries, testes, and pancreas

What are the 6 examples of glands?

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34

Growth

What is the pituitary gland important for?

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35

Nutrition/metabolism

What is the thyroid gland important for?

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36

Adrenaline

What is the adrenal gland important for?

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37

Eggs

What do ovaries produce?

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38

Sperms

What do testes produce?

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39

Hormones and enzymes

What does the pancreas produce?

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40

Produces and secretes substances such as sweat, oil, digestive enzymes, mucus, and hormones

What do glands do?

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41

Apical surface, basement membrane, avascular

What are the unique characteristics of epithelium?

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42

Apical Surface

The top surface of tissue that is exposed to the surrounding environment

<p>The top surface of tissue that is exposed to the surrounding environment</p>
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43

Basement Surface

The lower surface of the tissue

<p>The lower surface of the tissue</p>
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44

Basement Surface

Contains material secreted by both the epithelial cells and the connective tissue cells that are next to the epithelium

<p>Contains material secreted by both the epithelial cells and the connective tissue cells that are next to the epithelium</p>
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45

No. They are avascular

Do epithelial tissue have a blood supply of their own?

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46

Relies on diffusion from the capillaries in the underlying connective tissue for food and oxygen

Epithelial tissue relies __________________

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47

A body tissue that provides support for the body and connects all of its parts; grows back through mitosis when disconnected from other tissues

Connective Tissue

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48

Bone (osseous), Cartilage, Dense connective tissue (fibrous), Loose connective tissue, and reticular connective tissue

What are the five types of connective tissue?

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49

Blood supply (vascularized) except in cartilage, ligaments and tendons; Located in the dermis or the lower level of skin; includes an extracellular matrix

What are the 3 characteristics of connective tissue?

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50

Extracellular Tissue

Composed of several different cell types and is made of parts secreted by other cells; allows the tissues to bear weight

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51

Osteocytes

What are bone cells called?

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52

Bone (Osseous) Tissue

Have bone cavities called lucanae, which is surrounded by layers of the matrix

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53

Connection and support

What is bone good for?

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54

Calcium and collagen fibers

What does the matrix, surrounding the bone cavities, contain?

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55

More flexible than bone

Cartilage Tissue

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56

Chondrocytes

What are the cells called for cartilage?

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57

Hyaline, fibrocartilage, and elastic cartilage

What are the three types of cartilage tissue?

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58

Has a lot of collagen fibers and includes a rubbery matrix

Hyaline

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59

Breastbone, lareax, and nose

Where is hyaline located in?

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60

Forms cushion-like discs in the spine

Fibrocartilage

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61

Contains structures elasticity

Elastic Cartilage

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Ear canal

Where can elastic cartilage be found in?

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63

Forms tendons and ligaments

Dense Connective Tissue (fibrous)

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64

Lower layers of the skin

Where is dense connective tissue located in?

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65

Has ropelike, strong tissue that forms into sheets

Describe dense connective tissue.

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66

More stretchy compared to tendons

Ligaments in dense connective tissue are __________

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67

Fibroblasts and fibrocytes

The cells of dense connective tissue are called _________

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Immature

Are fibroblasts immature or mature?

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69

Mature

Are fibrocytes immature or mature?

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70

Softer, more cells, few fibers

Loose Connective Tissue

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71

Areolar and adipose tissue

What are the two types of loose connective tissue?

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72

Mature cells

-cyte

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73

Immature cell

-blast

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74

Is called the "glue" of the organs because it "strings" them together

Areolar Tissue

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75

Looks like a cobweb, is soft, pliable

Describe Areolar Tissue.

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76

Most widely distributed tissue in the body

Areolar Tissue is the most __________

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77

Edema

What is the watery solution that surrounds Areolar tissue called?

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78

Phagocytes that are searching for food

What is located in Areolar tissue?

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79

Insulates and protects organs, cushions your eye sockets, fuels body with energy

Adipose Tissue

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80

Areolar tissue and fat cells beneath the skin

What are adipose tissue made up of?

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81

Breast, Arms, Stomach, and Hips

Where is adipose tissue located in?

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82

Network of cells that form a layer called stroma

Reticular Connective Tissue

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83

Supplies blood to cells and organs; supports blood cells or lymphocytes in lymphoid organs

What is the function of reticular connective tissue?

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84

Stroma

Layer in the cells that looks like cob-webs

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85

Dermis

Inner layer of skin

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86

Extracellular Matrix

A collection of molecules secreted by cells that provides structural and biochemical support to the surrounding cells

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87

Blood cells surrounded by plasma fluid (nonliving); has white blood cells and red blood cells with plasma inside

Vascular/Blood Tissue

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88

Transports blood and nutrients through the body

What is the function of Vascular Tissue?

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89

Blood vessels and the heart

Where is Vascular Tissue located in?

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90

Consists of a network of interwoven reticular fibers which forms stroma or internal framework of organs

What else does Vascular Tissue consist of?

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91

Is the transport vehicle for the cardiovascular system, carrying nutrients, wastes, respiratory gases, and many other necessary substances throughout the body

Blood

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92

Blood

_______ is not a typical connective tissue

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93

Platelets

What is responsible for clotting?

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94

blood are soluble, visible

Fibers of _____ are _____ protein that becomes ____ during clotting

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95

Is highly specialized to contract or shorten to produce movement

Muscle Tissue

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96

Skeletal, Cardiac, and smooth muscle tissue

What are the 3 types of muscle tissue?

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97

Packaged by connective tissue sheets to form organs called skeletal muscles

Skeletal Muscle Tissue

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98

Voluntary because they are continuously moving

Are skeletal muscle tissue voluntary or involuntary?

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99

They pull on the bones and skin leading to movement

What happens when this muscle tissue contracts?

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100

Long, cylindral, multicellular, have obvious striations

Describe muscle tissue.

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