APUSH Unit 2 Flashcards

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128 Terms

1

corporate colonies

operated by joint-stock companies, during colonies’ early years; ex: Jamestown

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2

royal colonies

under the direct authority and rule of the king’s government; ex: Virginia after 1624

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3

proprietary colonies

under the authority of individuals granted charters of ownership by the king; ex: Maryland and Pennsylvania

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4

Jamestown

  • first permanent English colony

  • established in 1607

  • primary goal was for economic profit of joint-stock shareholders in England

  • early problems due to swampy location, disease, famine, unpreparedness, conflicts w/natives

  • survived through leadership of John Smith and help of John Rolfe + Pocahontas

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5

Virginia Company

  • chartered by King James I

  • joint-stock company

  • founded first permanent English colony at Jamestown in 1607

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6

Captain John Smith

  • English explorer, soldier, and author

  • Leader of the Jamestown colony in Virginia; helped establish first English colony

  • Captured by Powhatan tribe, saved by Pocahontas

  • Played a crucial role in the survival and growth of Jamestown colony

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7

John Rolfe

  • married Pocahontas

  • brought tobacco seeds from West Indies

  • helped develop variety of tobacco that became first profitable export in colonies

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8

Pocahontas

  • Native American woman from the Powhatan tribe

  • played a role in establishing peace between the Powhatan and English

  • married John Rolfe and became Rebecca Rolfe

  • lived in Jamestown rather than with natives

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9

headright

  • 50 acres of land Virginia provided to any settler who paid for passage to the colony

  • helped Europeans move to Virginia

  • aided landowners by sponsoring indentured servants

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10

Virginia

  • Jamestown remained near collapse despite tobacco

  • Virginia company nearly bankrupt

  • King James I revoked charter and renamed it Virginia, the first royal colony

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11

Plymouth

  • Settled by Protestants dissented from Anglican Church

  • Established in 1620

  • Very harsh first winter saw half the settlers die

  • American Indians helped colonists adapt to land

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12

Separatists

radical dissenters who established Plymouth and wanted to organize completely separate church independent of England’s royal control

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13

Pilgrims

What the separatists became known as due to their travels; religious travelers

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14

Mayflower

the ship that the Pilgrims sailed on from England to Plymouth

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15

First Thanksgiving

Celebration of the first good harvest between American Indians and Pilgrims in 1621

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16

Who helped grow Plymouth slowly?

Captain Miles Standish and Governor William Bradford

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17

What became the mainstays of the Plymouth economy?

fish, furs, and lumber

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18

Massachusetts Bay Colony

  • Puritans seeking freedom gained royal charter for Massachusetts Bay Company 1629

  • 1630: Puritans led by John Winthrop sailed for Massachusetts; founded Boston

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19

Puritans

more moderate dissenters who believed Church of England could be reformed “purified”

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20

Protestants

believed church of England should break completely with Rome

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21

Great Migration

movement of 15,000 settlers to Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1630s due to religious and political conflicts in England

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22

Maryland

  • King Charles I split off part of Virginia to create

  • Granted control to George Calvert (Lord Baltimore)

  • First proprietary colony

  • Cecil Calvert implemented GC(LB) plan to provide haven for Catholics who faced persecution from Protestants

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23

Act of Toleration

  • first colonial statute granting religious freedom to all Christians; called for death of anyone who denied divinity of Jesus

  • created by Cecil Calvert 1649

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24

Protestant Revolt

  • late 1600s, Protestants ignited civil war

  • Won and repealed Act of Toleration

  • Catholics lost right to vote in elections for assembly

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25

Roger Williams

  • well respected Puritan minister who moved from England to Boston

  • believed individuals conscience was beyond church or civil authority

  • founded Providence in 1636 and started first Baptist church in America

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26

Providence

  • established by Roger WIlliams in 1636

  • allowed Catholics, Quakers, and Jews to worship freely

  • recognized rights of American Indians and paid them for use of land

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27

Anne Hutchinson

  • Questioned Puritan teachings

  • believed in antinomianism

  • banished from Bay colony

  • founded Portsmouth in 1638

  • killed during Indian uprising

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28

antinomianism

since individuals receive salvation through faith alone, not required to follow traditional moral laws

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29

Rhode Island

  • established by Roger Williams in 1644

  • granted charter from Parliament

  • joined Providence and Portsmouth together

  • tolerated diverse beliefs; refuge for many

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30

Thomas Hooker

  • Reverend who led large group of Boston Puritans into Connecticut River Valley

  • founded Hartford in 1636

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31

Fundamental Orders of Connecticut

  • first written constitution in Merican history

  • established representative government with legislature elected by popular vote and governor chosen by legislature

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32

John Davenport

founded New Haven in 1637

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33

Connecticut

  • formed by joining of Hartford and New Haven in 1665

  • royal charter granted limited self-government, including election of governor

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34

New Hampshire

  • King Charles II separated New Hampshire from Massachusetts Bay colony in 1679

  • wanted to increase royal control over colonies

  • made it royal colony subject to authority of appointed governor

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35

Halfway Covenant

  • offered by some Puritan clergy so that people could become partial members even if they felt no conversion

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36

New England

  • Northeastern colonies including Rhode Island, Connecticut, New Hampshire, Massachusetts Bay colony, Plymouth

  • Rocky soil, harsh cold winters

  • Few plantations, mostly ship trading and manufacturing

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37

The Restoration

17th century period of restoration of the monarchy under King Charles II in 1660

followed brief period of republican rule under Puritan Oliver Cromwell

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38

South Carolina

  • 1670 English colonists and planters from Barbados founded Charleston

  • economy initially based on furs and food for West Indies

  • Rice-growing plantations worked by slaves

  • Resembled west Indies

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39

North Carolina

  • few good harbors and poor transportation

  • attracted farmers from Virginia and New England

  • established small tobacco farms

  • earned reputation for democratic views and autonomy from Britain

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40

Middle Colonies

  • four colonies between New England and Virginia; New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Delaware

  • fertile land that attracted diverse group of immigrants

  • good harbors

  • tolerant attitudes toward religion

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41

Chesapeake colonies

Virginia and Maryland

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42

New York

  • originally New Amsterdam, founded by Dutch

  • King granted Duke of York (future James II) lands between Conn and Deleware Bay

  • Easily took Dutch colony and renamed it New York

  • Allowed Dutch to worship and speak own lang

  • James “Taxation without representation”, no rep assembly in his colony

  • 1683, allowed governor to grant civil and political rights, representative assembly

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43

New Jersey

  • James split territory of New York in 1664 believing it was too large

  • Gave parts to John Berkely and Sir George Carteret; West New Jersey and East New Jersey

  • Allowed religious freedom and assembly

  • General confusion of land titles

  • 1702; both Jerseys combined into one royal colony: New Jersey

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44

Pennsylvania “The Holy Experiment”

  • large expanse of land given to William Penn in payment for debt “Penn’s Woods”

  • left land to son William Penn when died

  • hoped land would provide refuge for Quakers and others persecuted

  • adopted liberal ideas in government

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45

Quakers

  • radicals who believed religious authority was found in each person not in the Bible or other sources

  • supported equality

  • pacifists

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46

Frame of Government

guaranteed representative assembly elected by landowners and written constitution

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47

Charter of Liberties

guaranteed freedom of worship for all and unrestricted immigration

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48

William Penn

  • founded Pennsylvania

  • both father and son

  • governed from colonies rather than overseas

  • developed grid pattern of streets

  • hired agents and published promises of freedom and land

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49

Deleware

  • 1702, Penn granted lower three counties of Pennsylvania their own assembly

  • Became separate colony even though governor was the same as Pennsylvania’s

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50

Georgia

  • thirteenth and final British colony

  • chartered in 1732

  • only colony to receive direct financial support from government

  • colony did not survive under leadership of Oglethorpe

  • became royal colony in 1752

  • adopted plantation system of South Carolina

  • smallest of 13 colonies to fight against British

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51

Two reasons for British to start a new southern colony (Georgia)

  • to create a defensive buffer between South Carolina plantations and Spanish Florida

  • to create a place to send thousands of English people imprisoned for debt

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52

James Oglethorpe

  • founded Savannah in 1733

  • first governor

  • placed strict regulations and bans on drinking rum and slavery

  • did not survive under constant spanish threat

  • group gave up in 1752

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53

House of Burgesses

  • Organized by Virginia’s colonists

  • First representative assembly in Merica

  • Dominated by elite planters

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54

Mayflower Compact

  • document created by Pilgrims aboard the Mayflower in 1620

  • pledged to make decisions by will of the majority

  • early form of self gov and written constitution

  • all freemen in Mass Bay Colony had right to elect governor and rep assembly

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55

Limits to colonial democracy

  • females and landless males had few rights

  • ind. servants had practically no rights

  • slaves had none

  • many governors ruled autocratic or unlimited powers and only answered to the king

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56

What is the difference between indentured servants and the headright system?

  • indentured servants agreed to work for another person for a set period of time in exchange for benefits

  • headright system allowed investors to gain land by paying for people to immigrate to colonies to work on plantations

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57

triangular trade

  • connected North America, Africa, West Indies, Europe (vacations)

  • Ship would leave New England carrying rum across Atlantic to West Africa; rum traded for hundreds of African slaves→ship carried slaves across Middle Passage to West Indies; traded for sugarcane→ ship returned to New England where sugar was sold to make rum

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58

monopoly

a company having exclusive control over the market of a commodity or service

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59

Who first monopolized the trade of African American slaves

Royal African Company; Parliament ended monopoly due to inability of RAC to meet slave demand in colonies

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60

mercantilism

  • economic theory that a country’s wealth was determined by how much more it exported than imported

  • believed there was “fixed wealth” in the world in gold and silver

  • colonies main goal was to enrich the parent country

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61

Navigation Acts

implemented by English government between 1650 and 1673

three rules for colonial trade:

  1. trade to and from could only be carried out on English or colonial-built ships with English or colonial crews

  2. All goods imported, except for perishables ,had to pass through English ports

  3. enumerated goods could be exported to England only (tobacco was the original)

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62

Positive impact of Navigation act on colonies

aided shipbuilding, provided monopoly on tobacco in England, English military protected colonies from Frech and Spanish attacks

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63

negative impact of Navigation Act on colonies

colonists had to pay lots for English manufactured goods, farmers could only sell crops to england had to accept low prices for crops

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64

salutary neglect

a policy in which England was very lax in enforcing the regulations of mercantilism and the Navigation Acts

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65

factors that made enforcement of Navigation Acts difficult

  1. Atlantic Ocean separated them, so exerting authority was challenging

  2. England in constant turmoil; civil war and four wars with France

  3. British colonial agents were corrupt; colonial merchants evaded regulations with bribes

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66

Why did the crown revoke the Charter of Massachusetts Bay in 1684?

it had been a center of smuggling activity due to the Navigation Acts

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67

Dominion of New England

  • 1686: newly appointed King James II combined New York, New Jersey, and various New England colonies

  • wanted to increase royal control over colonies by removing rep assemblies

  • governed by Sir Edmund Andros; levied taxes, limited meetings, revoked land titles

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68

Glorious Revolution

1688: an uprising replaced King James with William and Mary; dominion of New England brought to end

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69

New England Confederation

  • 1643: Plymouth, Mass Bay, Conn, and New Haven formed military alliance

  • two representatives from each colony

  • limited powers over boundary disputes, return of runaway servants, and American Indians

  • came to end in 1684

  • established precedent for colonies taking unified action for common purpose

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70

Metacom’s War (King Philip’s War)

  • Chief of Wampanoag, Metacom, united tribes in South New England

  • English settlers encroaching on American Indian land

  • some tribes supported colonists

  • villages burned, hundreds killed, thousands injured

  • colonial forces eventually won and killed Metacom

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71

Sir William Berkeley

  • royal governor of Virginia

  • governed on behalf of large planters

  • failed to protect small farmers on Western frontier from Indian attacks

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72

Bacon’s Rebellion

  • led by farmer Nathaniel Bacon

  • Rebellion against Berkeley’s government

  • Conducted raids against American Indian villages

  • Defeated governor forces and burned Jamestown

  • Bacon soon died and rebellion fizzled out

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73

What disputes did bacons rebellion highlight in the colonies?

  • class differences between wealthy and landless/poor farmers

  • conflict between settlers and Indians on frontier

  • colonial resistance to royal control

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74

Pueblo Revolt

  • Spanish forced Native Americans to labor for them; tried to force and convert NA’s to Christianity

  • 1680: Pueblo Indians united against Spanish and drove them from area

  • 1692: Spanish regained control, but made accommodations to Indians in area

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75

Why was there a demand for labor in the colonies?

colonies began to emphasize agriculture

  • Maryland and Virginia saw opportunities for profit with demand for tobacco

  • did not have enough labors willing to work for low wages

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76

Indentured servants

people under contract with a master or landowner who paid for their passage to America in exchange for working for a specific period of time (4-7 years); under absolute rule of masters until end of work period

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77

why did the Virginia Company turn to indentured servants in a desire for labor?

purchasing African slaves was too expensive and they were struggling to survive

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78

headright system

virginia wanted to attract immigrants

  • offered 50 acres of land to each immigrant who paid for passage and any plantation owner who paid for immigrant’s passage

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79

How much of virginia’s and South Carolina’s population were slaves?

Half of Virginia’s and 2/3 of South Carolina’s

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80

Who enacted laws for slavery?

House of Burgesses enacted laws that kept African Americans + their offspring in permanent bondage

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81

Factors of increased demand for slaves

reduced migration: increases in wages in England reduced immigrants to colonies

Dependable workforce: Large plantation owners thought slavery would provide stable work force completely under their control

Low-cost labor: rice and indigo became profitable crops; required many inexpensive unskilled field hands to harvest

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82

Slave Laws

  • White colonists enacted laws to keep slaves in bondage and inherited slave status

  • 1641: Mass became first colony to recognize enslavement

  • 1661 Virginia enacted laws to inherit mother’s slave status for life

  • 1664: baptized Christians could be enslaved now

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83

Resistance to slavery

  • kept parts of African religious practices with them; songs, storytelling, tradition

  • went on hunger strikes, broke tools, refused to work, fled

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84

Why did population of colonies grow so much between 1701 and 1775?

immigration of almost 1 million people and high birthrate among colonial families

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85

immigrants from Europe

many came from France and various German speaking states; most settled in Middle Colonies and Western frontier of Southern colonies

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86

German settlers

settled on farmlands of Philadelphia (pennsylvania Dutch)

obeyed colonial laws, took little interest in politics

6 percent of population by 1775

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87

Scotch-Irish settlers

Protestants from northern Ireland

settled along frontier in Western Penn, Virginia, Carolinas, and Georgia

7 percent of population by 1775

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88

Other European settlers

French Protestants (Hueguenots), Dutch, and the Swedes

5 percent of population by 1775

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89

Enslaved Africans

largest group of people entering colonies

most commonly worked as field laborers on plantations

20 percent of population by 1775

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90

American Indians

formed alliances to protect land, peaceful relations in Pennsylvania

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91

Religious Toleration in Colonies

Massachusetts: most restrictive, Protestants, but no Roman catholics or non christians

Rhode Island and Pennsylvania: most open; penn accepted all who beieved in God, but only Christians could participate in government

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92

No Hereditary Aristocracy

A class system based on economics developed

Wealthy landowners at the top; craft works and small famers made up the majority

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93

Social Mobility

white residents had the opportunity to improve their living standard by hard work

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94

Family

center of colonial life; people married younger and had more children

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95

Men vs Women

Men: could own property and participate in politics; husband had almost unlimited power in home

Women: bore average of eight children; cooked cleaned, made clothes, medical care, education

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96

New England Economy

Rocky soil and long winters = subsistence farming just enough for family; profited from logging, shipbuilding, fishing, trading, and rum distilling

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97

Middle Colonies Economy

Rich soil produced wheat and corn for export; manufacturing such as iron making

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98

Southern Colonies Economy

self-sufficient colonial plantations using enslaved workers

tobacco in chesapeake and north carolina, timber and naval stores in South Carolina and Georgia

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99

Monetary System

British controlled economy by limiting the use of money; had to use gold and silver to pay for British imports

colonies issued paper money

too much money issued, causing it to decline in value = inflation

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100

Transportation

Goods were transported by water because it was easier than poor roads; horse and stagecoach travel became more common gradually in 18th century

taverns provided food and lodging for travelers as well as social centers

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