Special Senses

studied byStudied by 1 person
0.0(0)
get a hint
hint

Special senses

1 / 117

encourage image

There's no tags or description

Looks like no one added any tags here yet for you.

118 Terms

1

Special senses

Taste, smell, sight, hearing

New cards
2

Touch is a

general sense

New cards
3

Taste

Testing the enviornment, ability to respond to dissolved molecules & ions

New cards
4

Taste Buds: form of chemoreceptor

respond to chemicals in aqueous solution (or liquid form)

New cards
5

Gustation (Sense of taste)

stimulated by soluble chemicals

New cards
6

Pathway from taste buds (Gustation)

cranial nerves to medulla to thalamus to gustatory center of parietal lobe (Cerebral Cortex

New cards
7

Papillae

small, round or cone-shaped protuberances on top of tongue that contain taste buds

New cards
8

taste buds are found in

pits around papilla of tongue

New cards
9

fungiform papilla (most common)

scattered throughout tongue; taste buds found mostly on top

New cards
10

foliate papilla on sides

taste buds on side of papilla

New cards
11

circumvallate (vallate) papilla

Few but large & round; taste buds in side walls

New cards
12

. Basic Taste Perceptions

Sweet, salt, sour, bitter and umami

New cards
13

spicy "hot" foods actually trigger

Pain receptors

New cards
14

taste triggers

salivation and gastric juice in the stomach

New cards
15

80% of taste perception involves

Smell

New cards
16

Olfaction

sense of smell

New cards
17

Olfactory Membrane (chemoreceptors)

in epithelium of nasal mucosa

New cards
18

olfactory receptor cells

dendrite endings called olfactory cilia increase surface area and distribute molecules

New cards
19

olfactory bulb →olfactory tracts

course posteriorly under the frontal lobes → then two primary pathways

New cards
20

From olfactory tract to

primary olfactory cortex of the temporal lobe for interpretation

New cards
21

odors must be in gaseous state, make it to

olfactory membrane & then dissolve in mucus layer to be detected

New cards
22

anosmia

complete loss of smell; may be due to a head injury or a lack of zinc

New cards
23

Vision

70% of all sensory receptors in the body are in the eyes!

New cards
24

conjunctiva

thin mucous membrane lining covers inside of eyelids; also on white of eye - lubricates, moistens surface

New cards
25

eyebrows

shade eyes from sunlight & protect from perspiration

New cards
26

eyelids

protection & some light screening

New cards
27

meibomian gland (tarsal glands)

releases sebum at edge of lids (sebaceous gland)

New cards
28

lacrimal caruncle

“fleshy elevation” that produces white, oily secretion, “sand” when dry

New cards
29

eyelashes

protect eyes from debris

New cards
30

conjunctivitis

infection of the conjunctiva; causes inflammation or \n pinkeye, highly contagious

New cards
31

Lacrimal apparatus

produces tears; lacrimal gland -above eye; ducts drain tears into nasal cavity

New cards
32

tears

water, salts, mucin - lubricates lysozyme - kills bacteria

New cards
33

Extrinsic eye muscles

for fine motor control

New cards
34

rectus muscles

superior, inferior, lateral and medial

New cards
35

oblique muscles

superior and inferior

New cards
36

diplopia

double vision from paralysis or weakness of muscles; also - alcohol

New cards
37

strabismus

cross-eyed from weak eye muscles, repairable until around age 6

New cards
38

fibrous tunic

outermost layer, avascular

New cards
39

sclera

posterior, white, dense connective tissue

New cards
40

cornea

anterior, transparent layer, allows light in

New cards
41

vascular tunic (uvea)

network of blood vessels -supplies blood & nutrients to eye \n tissue

New cards
42

vascular tunic (uvea) consists of

choroid, iris, & ciliary body

New cards
43

choroid area of network

posterior, dark (helps absorb light), rich in blood vessels

New cards
44

iris (rainbow)

anterior, thin smooth muscular diaphragm; colored part of the eye

New cards
45

pupil

opening in center, regulates light coming in

New cards
46

circular muscles: constrict pupil

a consensual, contralateral reflex of parasympathetic nervous system

New cards
47

radial muscles: dilate pupil

controlled by sympathetic nervous system – not consensual

New cards
48

pupillary reflex

pupil constricts in bright light, dilates - dim

New cards
49

ciliary body

produces aqueous humor (thin, watery solution in anterior chamber of eye – between cornea & iris)

New cards
50

nervous tunic

very important inner layer of photoreceptor cells called the "retina."

New cards
51

Retina (neural tunic)

inner layer of eye

New cards
52

outer dark pigmented layer

melanin reduces reflection, stores vitamin A

New cards
53

inner neural layer

transduces light impulses into neural signals for vision

New cards
54

Rods

sensitive in dim light, black and white, detect movement

New cards
55

Rhodopsin

pigment of retina and rods

New cards
56

Cones

Color, less sensitive to light

New cards
57

macula

highly pigmented area of retina

New cards
58

color vision

detect red, green, blue

New cards
59

Photoreceptors detect

light energy

New cards
60

rods use up to 100 bipolar cells to feed into

one ganglion cell to improve night vision

New cards
61

cones are 100X less sensitive to light, because

only 1-3 bipolar cells have their own straight-through connection to a ganglion; resulting in clearer focus

New cards
62

color blindness

deficiency or absence of pigments needed for functional cones, more in males

New cards
63

XY

always shows up in males

New cards
64

XX

females may be carriers if 1 X is okay

New cards
65

night blindness

lack of vitamin A for photoreceptors

New cards
66

retinitis pigmentosa

inherited, visual receptors deteriorate, results in blindness

New cards
67

retinal detachment

pigmented and nervous layers separate, blindness

New cards
68

wet” macular degeneration

abnormal blood vessels grow under macular retina; leak fluids and cause scarring in central retina

New cards
69

Chambers of eye

divided by lens and its suspensory ligaments into anterior/posterior cavities

New cards
70

anterior cavity

contains aqueous humor - clear fluid that supplies oxygen & nutrients to lens and cornea; maintains pressure

New cards
71

Anterior cavity divided into

Anterior and posterior chambers

New cards
72

anterior chamber

in front of iris (between cornea & iris)

New cards
73

posterior chamber

in back of iris (between iris & lens)

New cards
74

posterior cavity

contains transparent vitreous humor (clear gel which binds water) \n a. transmits light \n b. supports lens; holds retina in place \n c. maintains intraocular pressure of eyeball

New cards
75

Glaucoma

abnormal elevation of intraocular pressure – may crush retina & optic nerve

New cards
76

Lens

biconvex, transparent, elastic structure \n a. eyes set for distance vision: far point of vision usually 20 ft. \n b. accommodation: adjustments made to lens to allow for \n focusing for near point of vision (lens thicker – more refraction)

New cards
77

cataracts

cloudiness of lens as fibers of lens accumulate

New cards
78

myopia (nearsightedness)

light rays focus in front of retina, corrected by concave lenses corrected

New cards
79

hyperopia (farsightedness)

focus is behind retina, corrected by convex lenses

New cards
80

astigmatism

unequal curvature of lens or cornea; blurry areas

New cards
81

presbyopia

lens of eye becomes more rigid with aging (40+?) - near point of vision goes further out

New cards
82

optic disc (blind spot)

found where optic nerve & blood vessels leave eye

New cards
83

optic chiasma

ganglion axons cross over

New cards
84

External ear

auricle (pinna), external auditory canal (meatus), tympanic membrane (eardrum):

New cards
85

auricle (pinna)

directs sound waves

New cards
86

external auditory canal (meatus)

hairs & cerumen (wax) protect/ keep canal clean

New cards
87

tympanic membrane (eardrum):

vibrates with sound waves

New cards
88

Middle Ear bordered by tympanic membrane

air-filled, mucous lined chamber (tympanic cavity) in \n temporal bone and houses auditory ossicles (malleus, incus, stapes, hammer, anvil, stirrup)

New cards
89

Ossicles

(malleus, incus, stapes) transmit & amplify vibrations

New cards
90

pharyngotympanic tube

regulates pressure on either side of eardrum and connects middle ear to pharynx

New cards
91

otitis media

middle ear infections, may insert tube to drain fluid where bacteria thrive

New cards
92

Inner Ear

made up of membranous labyrinth inside an osseous labyrinth

New cards
93

perilymph

between two labyrinths (osseous labyrinth)

New cards
94

endolymph

inside membranous labyrinth (center)

New cards
95

cochlear duct lies between

oval and round window

New cards
96

cochlea “snail shaped” -houses

the organ of hearing vibrations of middle ear taken from stapes

New cards
97

Organ of Corti

has receptors called hair cells (on basilar membrane) \n that extend into endolymph of cochlear duct, between scalas

New cards
98

Nervous pathway

vestibulocochlear nerve → cerebellum → thalamus → cerebral cortex

New cards
99

temporal lobes

auditory cortices

New cards
100

Semicircular canals

function in dynamic equilibrium (help maintain equilibrium during movement)

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 18 people
Updated ... ago
4.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 8 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 7 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 12 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 7 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 96 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 43979 people
Updated ... ago
4.8 Stars(380)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard65 terms
studied byStudied by 92 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard60 terms
studied byStudied by 9 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard165 terms
studied byStudied by 10 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard44 terms
studied byStudied by 4 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard30 terms
studied byStudied by 2 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard48 terms
studied byStudied by 14 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(3)
flashcards Flashcard447 terms
studied byStudied by 9 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard249 terms
studied byStudied by 13 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)