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Previous Chapter Info

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Prefixes (conversion)

mega (M)- 10^6

kilo (k)- 10^3

deka (da)- 10

deci (d)- 10^-1

centi (c)- 10^-2

milli (m)- 10^-3

micro (the weird u symbol)- 10^-6

nano (n)- 10^-9

pico (p)- 10^-12

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Acetate

C₂H₃O₂⁻

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Carbonate

CO₃²⁻

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Hydrogen Carbonate (aka bicarbonate)

HCO₃⁻

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Hydroxide

OH⁻

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Nitrate

NO₃⁻

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Nitrite

NO₂⁻

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Chromate

CrO₄²⁻

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Dichromate

Cr₂O₇²⁻

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Phosphate

PO₄³⁻

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Hydrogen Phosphate

HPO₄²⁻

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Dihydrogen Phosphate

H2PO4-

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Ammonium

NH₄⁺

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Hydronium

H3O+

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Hypochlorite

ClO⁻

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Chlorite

ClO₂⁻

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Chlorate

ClO₃⁻

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Perchlorate

ClO₄⁻

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Permanganate

MnO₄⁻

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Sulfate

SO₄²⁻

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Sulfite

SO₃²⁻

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hydrogen sulfite (aka bisulfite)

HSO₃⁻

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hydrogen sulfate (aka bisulfate)

HSO₄⁻

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Peroxide

O₂²⁻

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Cyanide

CN⁻

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Chapter 7-11

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Visible light

is a type of **electromagnetic radiation**

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Wave properties of electromagnetic radiation

**frequency**(ν,*nu*)cycles per second (1 / s)

**wavelength**(λ,*lambda*)the distance a wave travels in one cycle; the distance between adjacent wave peaks

**amplitude**the height of a wave crest or depth of a trough

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**Speed of light**

3.00x10^8 m/s

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amplitude and wavelength

no relationship between the two

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Frequency and wavelength

between the frequency of a wave and its wavelength**inverse relationship**For waves traveling at the same speed, the shorter the wavelength, the more frequently they pass

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frequency/ wavelength formula

**v = c/λ**

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energy and wavelength

Inversely proportional

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electromagnetic spectrum (from Low wavelength/ high energy to high wavelength/low energy)

Gamma Rays

X-Rays

Ultra-violet

Visible range

infrared

microwaves

radio

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Visible Range

400-750 nm

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color

“White” light is a mixture of

the colors of visible light**ALL**wavelength of colors decreasing order: ROY G BIV

color= when object absorbs some of wavelengths of white light but reflects others

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Refraction

When a light wave passes from one medium into another, the speed of the wave changes

Particles of matter do not undergo refraction

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Dispersion

White light separates into its component colors when it passes through a prism

Each incoming wave is refracted at a slightly different angle

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Interference

interaction between waves

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Constructive interference

waves interact so they add to make a larger wave

IN phase

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Destructive interference

The waves interact so they cancel each other

OUT of phase

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Diffraction

NOT refraction

When traveling waves encounter an obstacle or opening in a barrier, they “

*move*” through or around itParticles do not diffract

either go thru slit or dont

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Blackbody radiation

energy radiated by any object or system that absorbs all incident radiation

Black Body Radiation illustrates that

**temperature**is related to**energy**

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Quantum Theory

color/ intensity of emitted light changes as the temperature changes

**COLOR**is related to*n*and λTHUS

**energy**has to be related to frequency and wavelength somehow

made by Max Plank

determined that a hot, glowing object could emit (or absorb) only

quantities of energy*certain*

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Energy and Frequency Formula

E=

*n*h*v**E = energy of the radiation**n*= quantum number; a positive integer (1, 2, 3…)v = frequency

h= Planks Constant (6.626x10^-34)

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Planks Constant

6/626x10^-34

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The Quantum Theory of Energy

Any object can emit or absorb ONLY

quantities of energy**certain**energy is quantized

occurs in fixed quantities rather than continuous

Each fixed quantity of energy is called a quantum

atom changes energy “state” by emitting or absorbing one or more quanta of energy

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Energy Changes

Δ

*E =*Δ*n*h*v**E = energy of the radiation**n*= quantum number; a positive integer (1, 2, 3…)v = frequency

h= Planks Constant (6/626x10^-34)

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Energy Formulas

E = h*v* = hc /λ

E= hc/ λ

E= hv

V= c/ λ

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Threshold Freq. in Wave Model & Real World

Wave model:

intensity is responsible for observed E and e- will break off when it has absorbed enough light of any color

Real world

the e- only breaks free when it is hit w certain color of light (certain v), regardless of brightness

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Time Lag in Wave Model & Real World

Wave Model

if the light is dim, less E is absorbed, so the e- should have to spend more time absorbing before it can break free

Real World

current begins to flow immediatley when it is hit w appropriate color of light, again, regardless of brightness

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Photon Theory

Threshold Frequency:

intensity represents the number of photons, not the E.

E is related to v, so an e- must absorb a photon of a certain minimum color to break free

Time Lag

photon either has enough energy to free e- in one hit or it doesnt; the e- cannot store energy until it has enough

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Line spectrum

series of fine lines at specific frequencies separated by “black spaces”

Each atom of a particular element has its own unique line spectra (aka emission spectra)

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Bohr’s Model of the Hydrogen Atom

made of ORBITS not orbitals!

The H atom has only certain energy levels, stationary states

The higher the energy level, the farther the orbit is from the nucleus

The atom does not radiate energy while in one of its stationary states

The atom changes to another stationary state

by absorbing or emitting a photon**ONLY**The energy of the photon (hn) equals the difference between the energies of the two energy states

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quantum numbers and electron orbit

n (quantum) positive integer that reps radius of e orbit

lower the n value, the smaller the radius of the orbit, and the lower the energy level

When the electron is in an orbit closer to the nucleus (lower n), more energy is required to move it out of that orbit than when it is in an orbit farther from the nucleus (higher

*n*)

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Ground state

When the electron is in the first orbit (n=1), closest to nucleus, H atom is in its lowest (1st) energy level

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excited state

if electron in any orbit further from nucleus, atom in excited state

second orbit (n=2) = first excited state, third orbit (n=3) = second excited state etc etc

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Absorption & Bohr Model

If a H atom absorbs a photon whose energy equals the difference between lower and higher energy levels, the electron moves to the outer (higher energy) orbit

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Emission & Bohr model

If a H atom in a higher energy level (electron in a farther orbit) returns to a lower energy level (electron in a closer orbit), the atom emits a photon whose energy equals the difference between the two levels

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Quantum staircase

The energy difference between two consecutive orbits decreases as *n* increases

absorption & emission = inversely related

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Rydberg’s equation: NRG transition problem (constant provided)

used to to solve for the wavelength of a spectral line or energy-level transitions

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Limitations of Bohr’s Model

ONLY works for Hydrogen

fails completely when you introduce more than one electron to the system

MAJOR FLAW: assumes

*electrons move in fixed, defined orbits*

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Emission Spectrum

Occurs when atoms in an excited state

*emit*photons as they return to a lower energy stateSome elements produce an intense spectral line that is evidence of their presence

**Flame tests –**performed by placing a granule of an ionic compound or a drop of its solution in a flame

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Absorption Spectrum

“opposite” of an emission spectra

Produced when atoms

photons of certain wavelengths and become excited*absorb*Sodium’s absorption spectrum shows dark lines at the same wavelengths as the yellow-orange lines in sodium's emission spectrum

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**Theory of Relativity**

**matter and energy are alternate forms of the same entity**

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de Broglie Wavelength equation

an equation for the wavelength of any particle of mass m moving at speed u (substituted for c)

Matter behaves as though it moves in waves

An object’s wavelength is

**inversely**proportional to it’s mass and speed

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Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Principle

impossible to know, simultaneously, the position

momentum of an particle*and*

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locations of electrons

dont know exact position of an electron, but can determine where it

*probably*might beSolving the wave function gives the

, a measure of the*probability density*of finding an electron of a particular energy in a particular region of the atom*probability*

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Quantum numbers and Atomic Orbitals

atomic orbital specified by 4 quantum numbers:

Principal quantum number

Angular momentum quantum number

Magnetic quantum number

spin quantum number

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Principal quantum number

n

positive whole # (1, 2, 3…)

Indicates the relative

*distance from the nucleus (tells u how far u r from nucleus)*Specifies the energy level

orbital energy (size)

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Angular momentum quantum number

(

*l*)integer from 0 to

*n***– 1**shape of the orbital

S,P,D,F

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Magnetic quantum number

(

*ml*)integer from –

*l*to +*l*Describes the 3D orientation of the orbital in the space around the nucleus (what orientation L is in n state)

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Spin Quantum Number

Ms

+1/2 or -1/2

direction of e- spin

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how to get orbitals from quantum numbers

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Energy Levels

The levels (given by n) are divided into sublevels (or subshells), given by the

*l*value*l*= 0 is an*s*sublevel*l*= 1 is an*p*sublevel*l*= 2 is an*d*sublevel*l*= 3 is an*f*sublevel

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S Orbital shape

spherical shape w/ nucleus in center

has only ONE

*ml*value

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P Orbitals shape

have two regions (lobes) of high probability of finding an electron, one on either side of the nucleus

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D Orbitals shape

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Pauli Exclusion Principle

each orbital may contain a maximum of 2 electrons, which must have opposite spins

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aufbau principle

electrons are always placed in the lowest energy sublevel available

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**Hund’s rule**

when orbitals of equal energy are available, the lowest energy electron configuration has the

**maximum number of unpaired electrons**with parallel spins

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S orbital electrons

(

*l*= 0)max number of e—s = 2

*ml*= 0, so there is only one atomic orbital

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P orbital electrons

(

*l*= 1)max number of e—s = 6

*ml*= -1, 0, +1 → three atomic orbitals

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d orbital electrons

(

*l*= 2)max number of e—s = 10

*ml*= -2, -1, 0, +1, +2 → five atomic orbitals

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f orbital electrons

(

*l*= 3)max number of e—s = 14

*ml*= -3, -2, -1, 0, +1, +2, +3 → seven atomic orbitals

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Nuclear Charge (*Z*)

A higher nuclear charge (more protons) increases nucleus-electron attractions, lowering the sublevel energy and stabilizes the atom (lower E = good!)

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Shielding

each electron “feels” presence of others so each electron

the others from the nuclear charge (charge of the nucleus)**shields**Essentially, each e— is blocking some of the nucleus’s attraction from other nearby e—

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**effective nuclear charge (**** Z**eff)

“full” nuclear charge is reduced to an

__**effective nuclear charge (**__, the nuclear charge an electron____eff)*Z*experiences*actually*

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Penetration

increases nuclear attraction and decreases shielding

The better an outer electron is at penetrating through the electron cloud of inner electrons, the more attraction it will have for the nucleus

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stability of sublevels

s < p < d < f

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e configuration

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Half-filled exceptions!

**Cr**(Z=24) → [Ar] 4s2 3d4 →__[Ar] 4s13d5__Mo →

__5s1 4d5__Cu (Z=29) → [Ar] 4s1 3d10

Ag→ 5s1 d10

Au→ 6s1 4f15 5d10

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writing e config→ types of electrons

full is based off atomic #

condensed is valence electrons

inner electrons are the electrons which get replaced by a noble gas

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atomic size

*transition metalls increase down but dont really change ACROSS

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ionization energy

energy required to remove e

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exceptions to ionization energy trend

nitrogen: 1s2 2s2 2p3

stable half-filled structure

Taking an e— from N would make it

**less stable**(higher energy)

Oxygen: 1s2 2s2 2p4

one e— beyond stable

Taking an e— from oxygen would make the atom

**more stable**(lower energy)

It is easier to remove an e— from O (creating stability) than it is to remove one from N (destroying stability)

True for Be/B, N/O, Mg/Al, P/S, Ca/Ga, As/Se

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Successive Ionization Energies

For a given element, IE1, IE2, and so on, increase because each electron is pulled away from a species with a higher positive charge

This increase includes an enormous jump

the*after*has been removed because**last valence electron***much*more energy is needed to remove an inner (core) electron

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ID an element from its IEs

identify the largest increase in IE

occurs after last Ve is removed

that increase identifies Ve

period X (will be given) element which has that # valence electron

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