Studied by 1 person

0.0(0)

Get a hint

Hint

Looks like no one added any tags here yet for you.

1

Previous Chapter Info

New cards

2

Prefixes (conversion)

mega (M)- 10^6

kilo (k)- 10^3

deka (da)- 10

deci (d)- 10^-1

centi (c)- 10^-2

milli (m)- 10^-3

micro (the weird u symbol)- 10^-6

nano (n)- 10^-9

pico (p)- 10^-12

New cards

3

Acetate

C₂H₃O₂⁻

New cards

4

Carbonate

CO₃²⁻

New cards

5

Hydrogen Carbonate (aka bicarbonate)

HCO₃⁻

New cards

6

Hydroxide

OH⁻

New cards

7

Nitrate

NO₃⁻

New cards

8

Nitrite

NO₂⁻

New cards

9

Chromate

CrO₄²⁻

New cards

10

Dichromate

Cr₂O₇²⁻

New cards

11

Phosphate

PO₄³⁻

New cards

12

Hydrogen Phosphate

HPO₄²⁻

New cards

13

Dihydrogen Phosphate

H2PO4-

New cards

14

Ammonium

NH₄⁺

New cards

15

Hydronium

H3O+

New cards

16

Hypochlorite

ClO⁻

New cards

17

Chlorite

ClO₂⁻

New cards

18

Chlorate

ClO₃⁻

New cards

19

Perchlorate

ClO₄⁻

New cards

20

Permanganate

MnO₄⁻

New cards

21

Sulfate

SO₄²⁻

New cards

22

Sulfite

SO₃²⁻

New cards

23

hydrogen sulfite (aka bisulfite)

HSO₃⁻

New cards

24

hydrogen sulfate (aka bisulfate)

HSO₄⁻

New cards

25

Peroxide

O₂²⁻

New cards

26

Cyanide

CN⁻

New cards

27

Chapter 7-11

New cards

28

Visible light

is a type of **electromagnetic radiation**

New cards

29

Wave properties of electromagnetic radiation

**frequency**(ν,*nu*)cycles per second (1 / s)

**wavelength**(λ,*lambda*)the distance a wave travels in one cycle; the distance between adjacent wave peaks

**amplitude**the height of a wave crest or depth of a trough

New cards

30

**Speed of light**

3.00x10^8 m/s

New cards

31

amplitude and wavelength

no relationship between the two

New cards

32

Frequency and wavelength

between the frequency of a wave and its wavelength**inverse relationship**For waves traveling at the same speed, the shorter the wavelength, the more frequently they pass

New cards

33

frequency/ wavelength formula

**v = c/λ**

New cards

34

energy and wavelength

Inversely proportional

New cards

35

electromagnetic spectrum (from Low wavelength/ high energy to high wavelength/low energy)

Gamma Rays

X-Rays

Ultra-violet

Visible range

infrared

microwaves

radio

New cards

36

Visible Range

400-750 nm

New cards

37

color

“White” light is a mixture of

the colors of visible light**ALL**wavelength of colors decreasing order: ROY G BIV

color= when object absorbs some of wavelengths of white light but reflects others

New cards

38

Refraction

When a light wave passes from one medium into another, the speed of the wave changes

Particles of matter do not undergo refraction

New cards

39

Dispersion

White light separates into its component colors when it passes through a prism

Each incoming wave is refracted at a slightly different angle

New cards

40

Interference

interaction between waves

New cards

41

Constructive interference

waves interact so they add to make a larger wave

IN phase

New cards

42

Destructive interference

The waves interact so they cancel each other

OUT of phase

New cards

43

Diffraction

NOT refraction

When traveling waves encounter an obstacle or opening in a barrier, they “

*move*” through or around itParticles do not diffract

either go thru slit or dont

New cards

44

Blackbody radiation

energy radiated by any object or system that absorbs all incident radiation

Black Body Radiation illustrates that

**temperature**is related to**energy**

New cards

45

Quantum Theory

color/ intensity of emitted light changes as the temperature changes

**COLOR**is related to*n*and λTHUS

**energy**has to be related to frequency and wavelength somehow

made by Max Plank

determined that a hot, glowing object could emit (or absorb) only

quantities of energy*certain*

New cards

46

Energy and Frequency Formula

E=

*n*h*v**E = energy of the radiation**n*= quantum number; a positive integer (1, 2, 3…)v = frequency

h= Planks Constant (6.626x10^-34)

New cards

47

Planks Constant

6/626x10^-34

New cards

48

The Quantum Theory of Energy

Any object can emit or absorb ONLY

quantities of energy**certain**energy is quantized

occurs in fixed quantities rather than continuous

Each fixed quantity of energy is called a quantum

atom changes energy “state” by emitting or absorbing one or more quanta of energy

New cards

49

Energy Changes

Δ

*E =*Δ*n*h*v**E = energy of the radiation**n*= quantum number; a positive integer (1, 2, 3…)v = frequency

h= Planks Constant (6/626x10^-34)

New cards

50

Energy Formulas

E = h*v* = hc /λ

E= hc/ λ

E= hv

V= c/ λ

New cards

51

New cards

52

Threshold Freq. in Wave Model & Real World

Wave model:

intensity is responsible for observed E and e- will break off when it has absorbed enough light of any color

Real world

the e- only breaks free when it is hit w certain color of light (certain v), regardless of brightness

New cards

53

Time Lag in Wave Model & Real World

Wave Model

if the light is dim, less E is absorbed, so the e- should have to spend more time absorbing before it can break free

Real World

current begins to flow immediatley when it is hit w appropriate color of light, again, regardless of brightness

New cards

54

Photon Theory

Threshold Frequency:

intensity represents the number of photons, not the E.

E is related to v, so an e- must absorb a photon of a certain minimum color to break free

Time Lag

photon either has enough energy to free e- in one hit or it doesnt; the e- cannot store energy until it has enough

New cards

55

Line spectrum

series of fine lines at specific frequencies separated by “black spaces”

Each atom of a particular element has its own unique line spectra (aka emission spectra)

New cards

56

Bohr’s Model of the Hydrogen Atom

made of ORBITS not orbitals!

The H atom has only certain energy levels, stationary states

The higher the energy level, the farther the orbit is from the nucleus

The atom does not radiate energy while in one of its stationary states

The atom changes to another stationary state

by absorbing or emitting a photon**ONLY**The energy of the photon (hn) equals the difference between the energies of the two energy states

New cards

57

quantum numbers and electron orbit

n (quantum) positive integer that reps radius of e orbit

lower the n value, the smaller the radius of the orbit, and the lower the energy level

When the electron is in an orbit closer to the nucleus (lower n), more energy is required to move it out of that orbit than when it is in an orbit farther from the nucleus (higher

*n*)

New cards

58

Ground state

When the electron is in the first orbit (n=1), closest to nucleus, H atom is in its lowest (1st) energy level

New cards

59

excited state

if electron in any orbit further from nucleus, atom in excited state

second orbit (n=2) = first excited state, third orbit (n=3) = second excited state etc etc

New cards

60

Absorption & Bohr Model

If a H atom absorbs a photon whose energy equals the difference between lower and higher energy levels, the electron moves to the outer (higher energy) orbit

New cards

61

Emission & Bohr model

If a H atom in a higher energy level (electron in a farther orbit) returns to a lower energy level (electron in a closer orbit), the atom emits a photon whose energy equals the difference between the two levels

New cards

62

Quantum staircase

The energy difference between two consecutive orbits decreases as *n* increases

absorption & emission = inversely related

New cards

63

Rydberg’s equation: NRG transition problem (constant provided)

used to to solve for the wavelength of a spectral line or energy-level transitions

New cards

64

Limitations of Bohr’s Model

ONLY works for Hydrogen

fails completely when you introduce more than one electron to the system

MAJOR FLAW: assumes

*electrons move in fixed, defined orbits*

New cards

65

Emission Spectrum

Occurs when atoms in an excited state

*emit*photons as they return to a lower energy stateSome elements produce an intense spectral line that is evidence of their presence

**Flame tests –**performed by placing a granule of an ionic compound or a drop of its solution in a flame

New cards

66

Absorption Spectrum

“opposite” of an emission spectra

Produced when atoms

photons of certain wavelengths and become excited*absorb*Sodium’s absorption spectrum shows dark lines at the same wavelengths as the yellow-orange lines in sodium's emission spectrum

New cards

67

**Theory of Relativity**

**matter and energy are alternate forms of the same entity**

New cards

68

de Broglie Wavelength equation

an equation for the wavelength of any particle of mass m moving at speed u (substituted for c)

Matter behaves as though it moves in waves

An object’s wavelength is

**inversely**proportional to it’s mass and speed

New cards

69

Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Principle

impossible to know, simultaneously, the position

momentum of an particle*and*

New cards

70

locations of electrons

dont know exact position of an electron, but can determine where it

*probably*might beSolving the wave function gives the

, a measure of the*probability density*of finding an electron of a particular energy in a particular region of the atom*probability*

New cards

71

Quantum numbers and Atomic Orbitals

atomic orbital specified by 4 quantum numbers:

Principal quantum number

Angular momentum quantum number

Magnetic quantum number

spin quantum number

New cards

72

Principal quantum number

n

positive whole # (1, 2, 3…)

Indicates the relative

*distance from the nucleus (tells u how far u r from nucleus)*Specifies the energy level

orbital energy (size)

New cards

73

Angular momentum quantum number

(

*l*)integer from 0 to

*n***– 1**shape of the orbital

S,P,D,F

New cards

74

Magnetic quantum number

(

*ml*)integer from –

*l*to +*l*Describes the 3D orientation of the orbital in the space around the nucleus (what orientation L is in n state)

New cards

75

Spin Quantum Number

Ms

+1/2 or -1/2

direction of e- spin

New cards

76

how to get orbitals from quantum numbers

New cards

77

Energy Levels

The levels (given by n) are divided into sublevels (or subshells), given by the

*l*value*l*= 0 is an*s*sublevel*l*= 1 is an*p*sublevel*l*= 2 is an*d*sublevel*l*= 3 is an*f*sublevel

New cards

78

S Orbital shape

spherical shape w/ nucleus in center

has only ONE

*ml*value

New cards

79

P Orbitals shape

have two regions (lobes) of high probability of finding an electron, one on either side of the nucleus

New cards

80

D Orbitals shape

New cards

81

Pauli Exclusion Principle

each orbital may contain a maximum of 2 electrons, which must have opposite spins

New cards

82

aufbau principle

electrons are always placed in the lowest energy sublevel available

New cards

83

**Hund’s rule**

when orbitals of equal energy are available, the lowest energy electron configuration has the

**maximum number of unpaired electrons**with parallel spins

New cards

84

S orbital electrons

(

*l*= 0)max number of e—s = 2

*ml*= 0, so there is only one atomic orbital

New cards

85

P orbital electrons

(

*l*= 1)max number of e—s = 6

*ml*= -1, 0, +1 → three atomic orbitals

New cards

86

d orbital electrons

(

*l*= 2)max number of e—s = 10

*ml*= -2, -1, 0, +1, +2 → five atomic orbitals

New cards

87

f orbital electrons

(

*l*= 3)max number of e—s = 14

*ml*= -3, -2, -1, 0, +1, +2, +3 → seven atomic orbitals

New cards

88

Nuclear Charge (*Z*)

A higher nuclear charge (more protons) increases nucleus-electron attractions, lowering the sublevel energy and stabilizes the atom (lower E = good!)

New cards

89

Shielding

each electron “feels” presence of others so each electron

the others from the nuclear charge (charge of the nucleus)**shields**Essentially, each e— is blocking some of the nucleus’s attraction from other nearby e—

New cards

90

**effective nuclear charge (**** Z**eff)

“full” nuclear charge is reduced to an

__**effective nuclear charge (**__, the nuclear charge an electron____eff)*Z*experiences*actually*

New cards

91

Penetration

increases nuclear attraction and decreases shielding

The better an outer electron is at penetrating through the electron cloud of inner electrons, the more attraction it will have for the nucleus

New cards

92

stability of sublevels

s < p < d < f

New cards

93

e configuration

New cards

94

Half-filled exceptions!

**Cr**(Z=24) → [Ar] 4s2 3d4 →__[Ar] 4s13d5__Mo →

__5s1 4d5__Cu (Z=29) → [Ar] 4s1 3d10

Ag→ 5s1 d10

Au→ 6s1 4f15 5d10

New cards

95

writing e config→ types of electrons

full is based off atomic #

condensed is valence electrons

inner electrons are the electrons which get replaced by a noble gas

New cards

96

atomic size

*transition metalls increase down but dont really change ACROSS

New cards

97

ionization energy

energy required to remove e

New cards

98

exceptions to ionization energy trend

nitrogen: 1s2 2s2 2p3

stable half-filled structure

Taking an e— from N would make it

**less stable**(higher energy)

Oxygen: 1s2 2s2 2p4

one e— beyond stable

Taking an e— from oxygen would make the atom

**more stable**(lower energy)

It is easier to remove an e— from O (creating stability) than it is to remove one from N (destroying stability)

True for Be/B, N/O, Mg/Al, P/S, Ca/Ga, As/Se

New cards

99

Successive Ionization Energies

For a given element, IE1, IE2, and so on, increase because each electron is pulled away from a species with a higher positive charge

This increase includes an enormous jump

the*after*has been removed because**last valence electron***much*more energy is needed to remove an inner (core) electron

New cards

100

ID an element from its IEs

identify the largest increase in IE

occurs after last Ve is removed

that increase identifies Ve

period X (will be given) element which has that # valence electron

New cards