Understanding the Self

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133 Terms

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Interconnectedness

the self is often seen as deeply interconnected with others.

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Social Roles and Status

respecting and adhering to one's social roles and status are vital

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Rituals and Ceremonies

they play a crucial role in the construction of the self. Birthdays, debuts, fiestas, etc.

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4

Ancestral Connection

Filipinos often maintain a strong connection to their ancestors.

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Language and Identity

Language is a crucial element in the anthropological perspective of self.

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Sociological Perspectives

an individual's understanding of their identity, personality, and place in society.

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Collectivism vs. Individualism

Filipino culture is often characterized by ________, where the self is closely tied to the family and community. 

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Bayanihan Spirit

This concept in Filipino culture highlights the communal nature of the self.

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Hierarchy and Respect:

The Filipino self is often shaped by hierarchical structures, such as the respect for elders and authority figures.

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Balancing Tradition and Modernity

Filipinos often navigate between traditional values and modern influences in shaping their self-identity.

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Religion and Spirituality

Religion is a crucial aspect of the Filipino self. Many Filipinos are Catholic, and their religious beliefs and practices often shape their values and behaviors. 

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Anthropological Perspectives

emphasizes the role of culture, society, and relationships in shaping an individual's identity.

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Essence

set of properties that make a thing what it fundamentally is.

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Vitalistic View of Life

The soul or the mind is what makes the person possess a self and experience its more personal equivalent, the I.

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Mechanistic of Life

A person is a complex organism (body) and that the mind is nothing but the function of the body or brain.

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Germinal characteristic

the idea that living things possess a life principle—the soul.

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17

Immanuel Kant

“The self is not something that we can know directly, but rather is something that we construct through our experiences.”

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John Locke

argued that we are born with a blank slate, or tabula rasa. This means that we do not have any innate ideas or knowledge. Our ideas come from our experiences, which are stored in our memory.

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Rene Descartes

“I think, therefore I am.”

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Neoplatonism

“The soul is but the prisoner of the body.”

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Aristotle

“The soul is the form of the body.”

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Socrates

“Know Thyself”

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Plato

The soul is immortal and distinct to the body.

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Thales of Miletus

Life is the core component of of the essence of things.

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St. Augustine

Defined the self as the soul, which is created by God and immortal. He believed that the soul is the essence of a person, and that it is what makes us who we are.

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St. Thomas Aquinas

“The human soul continues to exist after death”

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Impression

the basic objects of our experience or sensation. So, it forms the core of our thoughts.

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psychological continuity

which some scholars contend as identical to memories and mental states. A person who could identify as the himself/herself as the owner of the different mental states can claim to be the same person. To

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tabula rasa

blank slate

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David Hume

  • The self is not a thing, but rather a process.

  • The self is not continuous, but rather is constantly changing.

  • The self is not unified, but rather is a complex of different parts.

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31

conscious mind

part of the mind that we are aware of. It is the part of the mind that we use to think, feel, and act.

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unconscious mind

the part of the mind that we are not aware of. It contains our repressed thoughts, feelings, and memories.

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preconscious mind

is the part of the mind that is not currently conscious, but that can be brought into consciousness. It contains thoughts, feelings, and memories just below the surface of awareness.

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Freud divided the mind into three structures

id, ego, superego

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id

pleasure; the part of the mind that is driven by our basic instincts and desires. It is the part of the mind that wants what it wants, when it wants it.

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ego

balanced psychological health; the part of the mind that mediates between the id and the real world. It is the part of the mind that tries to satisfy the id's desires in a way that is realistic and acceptable

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superego

guilt; the part of the mind that represents our conscience. It is the part of the mind that tells us what we should and should not do.

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Kurt Goldstein and the Organismic/Holistic Viewpoint

The self is constantly striving to achieve its full potential, called "self-actualization."

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39

Physicalism

the view that the self is nothing more than a physical system, such as the brain.

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monism

that there is only one kind of substance in the universe, namely matter.

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The physicalist argument from elimination

This argument states that since there is no scientific evidence for the existence of a non-physical self, then there is no need to postulate such a thing.

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The physicalist argument from analogy

This argument states that the mind is like a computer, and that the brain is like the hardware of the computer. Just as the software of a computer is nothing more than a collection of electrical impulses, so the mind is nothing more than a collection of physical processes.

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The argument from consciousness

This argument states that consciousness is an irreducibly mental phenomenon that cannot be explained in physical terms.

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The argument from qualia

This argument states the subjective experiences of consciousness, are not physical properties.

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The argument from personal identity

This argument states that the self is not a physical thing, but rather is a personal identity that is constituted by our memories, experiences, and relationships.

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46

Wilhelm Wundt

father of Psychology, proposed structuralism

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Structuralism

The belief that the self could be broken down into elemental components through introspection.

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Sigmund Freud

proposed the psychoanalytic perspective; self as the complex interplay between the id, ego, and superego

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Psychoanalytic Perspective

Freud's psychoanalysis emphasized the unconscious mind. He viewed the self as a complex interplay between the id, ego, and superego.

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Alfred Adler

“To be human is to feel inferior.”

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51

Individual Psychology

emphasized that feeling inferior is a universal human experience that is rooted in childhood. The term “inferiority complex” describes the condition where the sense of inadequacy pervades various aspects of an individual’s life.

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balanced psyche

inferiority motivates one to be better, success relieves feelings of inferiority and confidence develops

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imbalanced psyche

inferiority motivates one to be better, success doesn’t relieve feelings of inferiority, inferiority complex dvelops.

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Carl Jung

proposed analytical psychology

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55

Analytical Psychology

beyond an individual's personal unconscious, there exists a collective unconscious shared by all humans, housing universal symbols and experiences; the idea of archetypes

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archetypes

symbols that act as organizing forms for behavioral patterns

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Introversion

A preference for inner experiences, reflection, and focus on one's own thoughts and feelings.

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Extraversion

A preference for external experiences, engagement with the external world, and social interaction.

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59

Hero

Represents the quest for achievement, courage, and overcoming adversity.

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60

Shadow

Symbolizes the hidden, dark aspects of the self that are often repressed.

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Anima

Men; Represent the inner opposite-gender aspect, reflecting qualities traditionally associated with the opposite gender.

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Animus

Women; Represent the inner opposite-gender aspect, reflecting qualities traditionally associated with the opposite gender.

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The Wise Old Man or Woman

Signifies wisdom, guidance, and insight.

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The Mother

Symbolizes nurturing, protection, and fertility.

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The Trickster

Represents chaos, unpredictability, and the disruptive force.

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Carl Rogers

emphasized self-concept

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Person-Centered

an individual's perception of themselves, including their beliefs, values, and experiences. Incongruence between the self-concept and actual experiences can lead to psychological distress.

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Incongruent

self-actualization is difficult; self-image is different to the ideal self.

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Congruent

able to self-actualize; self-image is similar to the ideal self.

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70

Multiple Selves Perspective

the self is seen as consisting of various, sometimes conflicting, sub-selves or identities.

Example: An individual may have a "work self"

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Unified Self Perspective

posits that there is a single, integrated self that remains consistent across various contexts and situations.

Example: Someone with a unified self would exhibit consistent qualities and values both at work and in their personal life. They would see themselves as the same person regardless of the context.

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72

Albert Bandura

creator of the concept of the self as an agent

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73

Human Agency

People are not passive recipients of their circumstances but have the capacity to exercise control and influence over their lives through intentional actions and self-regulation.

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Personal Agency

an individual's ability to make intentional choices, set goals, and take actions to achieve those goals. 

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Proxy Agency

involves the ability to act on behalf of others and influence their outcomes.

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Collective Agency

The collaborative efforts of individuals within a group or community to achieve common goals or address shared concerns.

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77

The Physical Self

refers to an individual's perception and awareness of their own physical body, including its appearance, abilities, sensations, and physical well-being. 

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78

What Shapes Body Image?

  • Media and Pop Culture 

  • Psychological Factors

  • Life Experiences and Trauma

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79

BMI (body mass index)

based on the height and weight of a person, is an inaccurate measure of body fat content and does not take into account muscle mass, bone density, overall body composition, and racial and sex differences.

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80

Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD)

dysmorphophobia; characterized by the obsessive idea that some aspect of one's own body part or appearance is severely flawed and therefore warrants exceptional measures to hide or fix it.

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81

The Sexual Self

encompasses an individual's sexual identity, orientation, and expression.; reflects one's understanding of their own sexuality and how it relates to their interactions with others.

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 Sex

biological term that refers to the physical characteristics that distinguish males from females. These characteristics include chromosomes, hormones, and reproductive organs.

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Gender

a social and cultural construct that refers to the roles, behaviors, and expressions that are associated with being male or female.

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Sexual orientation

refers to the gender or genders to which a person is attracted. 

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85

heterosexual

attracted to opposite sex

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homosexual

attracted to same sex

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bisexual

attracted to both sexes

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pansexual

attracted to people of all genders

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asexual

not attracted to anyone

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Gender Identity

a person's internal sense of being male, female, both, neither, or somewhere along the gender spectrum. 

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cisgender

identity aligns with assigned sex

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transgender

identity differs from assigned sex

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Gender Expression

the way that a person expresses their gender identity through their appearance, behavior, and mannerisms.

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94

Sexuality

a broad term that encompasses all aspects of our sexual being, including our sexual orientation, gender identity, gender expression, sexual behavior, and our feelings, thoughts, and attitudes about sex.

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95

vagina

the tube leading from the outside of the body to the opening of the womb

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uterus

the womb

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ovaries

the female sex glands

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penis

the organ through which males urinate and which delivers the male sex cells or sperm

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 testes

the male sex glands

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scrotum

an external pouch that holds the testes

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