History II - Exam 2

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19th Amendment

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19th Amendment

Granted women the constitutional right to vote. The Right of Citizens of the US to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the US or by any state on account of sex.

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Alice Paul

She served as the leader (Head) of the National Woman's Party (NSP) for 50 years. A suffragist, feminist, and women's rights activist. She was also the main leader of the 1910s campaign for the Nineteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution and organized the Silent Sentinels protest group.

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17th Amendment

Passed in 1913, this amendment to the Constitution calls for the direct election of senators by the voters instead of their election by state legislatures.

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4

Triangle Shirtwaist Fire

A fire in New York's Triangle Shirtwaist Company in 1911 killed 146 people, mostly women. They died because the doors were locked by management to prevent malingering and the windows were too high for them to get to the ground. Dramatized the poor working conditions and led to federal regulations to protect workers. (labor laws)

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5

Booker T. Washington

Educator, author, politician, attended Hampton university and taught there. Wrote “up from slavery”, spoke about African American education. Helped found Tuskegee Institute.

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Atlanta Compromise

A speech made by Washington in Atlanta at cotton states exposition. Said that they should sacrifice short term political rights and concentrate on industrial technical education.

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7

W.E.B. Dubois

He was born in Massachusetts. Attended Fisk University. First Black Ph.D from Harvard. Socialist, historian, and lecturer. Scholar and activist for racial equality. Author of “The Souls of Black Folk”. Founder of the Niagara Movement (1905) (a protest group) to oppose Washington. Founder of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (1909) to enforce what is known as the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments. Classical education important in developing the leaders from “The Talented Tenth”. 

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NAACP

Dubois, other black and white leaders involved. First meeting Feb. 12, 1909

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9

The Crisis

This was the newspaper of the NAACP and Dubois was the editor.

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10

Niagara Movement

Black leaders opposed Washington’s moderate approach.

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Women's Christian Temperance Union (WCTU)

Founded in 1873. Frances Willard assumed leadership in 1879. A group that worked towards banning the sale of liquor.

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12

18th Amendment

This banned the sale and consumption of alcohol in the US.

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13

Theodore Roosevelt

26th president, known for conservationism, trust-busting, Hepburn Act, safe food regulations, "Square Deal," Panama Canal, Great White Fleet, Nobel Peace Prize for negotiation of peace in Russo-Japanese War

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14

Northern Securities Company

A railroad monopoly formed by J.P. Morgan and James J. Hill which went against the Sherman Antitrust Act. Busted by Roosevelt

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"Square Deal”

Economic policy by Roosevelt that favored fair relationships between companies and workers.

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16

Gifford Pinchot

Appointed by McKinley. Head of Dept. of Agriculture Forestry (National Forest Service.) Believes forests should be protected from exploitation

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17

John Muir

The leading presevationist in the United States and founder of the Sierra Club. A Scottish-born American naturalist, author, and early advocate of preservation of wilderness in the United States. His letters, essays, and books telling of his adventures in nature, especially in the Sierra Nevada Mountains of California, have been read by millions. His activism helped to save the Yosemite Valley, Sequoia National Park and other wilderness areas.

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18

Pure Food and Drug Act

Regulated the processing and sale of food and medicine. This prohibited the sale of misbranded or adulterated food and drugs in interstate commerce and laid a foundation for the nation's first consumer protection agency, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA).

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19

"The Roosevelt Corollary”

An addition to the Monroe Doctrine stating the United States (U.S.) would intervene in conflicts in Latin American and European nations (Europe had to stay out of Latin America) Theodore gave a speech about this.

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20

Panama Canal

A waterway that President Roosevelt ordered to be built across the Isthmus of Panama in order to connect the Atlantic Ocean and the Pacific Ocean and allow ships to pass through. Roosevelt hoped that the canal would promote trade.

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William Howard Taft

Different from Roosevelt, slow, cautious, calculating, Legal background, believed in separation of powers, Breaks with Roosevelt.

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22

"The Great White Fleet”

A group of 16 gleaming white ships on a cruise around the world to display the nation's naval power after WW1 to show off power.

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23

"Bull Moose” Party

A name given to the Progressive Party, formed to support Theodore Roosevelt's candidacy for the presidency in 1912. This  political party was formed by Theodore Roosevelt in an attempt to advance progressive ideas and unseat President William Howard Taft in the election of 1912. After Taft won the Republican Party's nomination, Roosevelt ran on the Progressive Party ticket.

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24

Woodrow Wilson

28th president of the United States, and known for World War I leadership. He created the Federal Reserve, Federal Trade Commission, Clayton Antitrust Act, and progressive income tax, lowered tariffs, and supported women's suffrage (albeit reluctantly). 16th amendment.

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"The New Freedom”

Democrat Woodrow Wilson's political slogan in the presidential campaign of 1912; Wilson wanted to improve the banking system, lower tariffs (taxes), and, by breaking up monopolies, give small businesses the freedom to compete.

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Underwood-Simmons Tariff

Lowers the Tariff (pro-Southern legislation)

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27

16th Amendment

Allows the federal (United States) government to levy (collect) an income tax from all Americans. Income tax allows the federal government to keep an army, build roads and bridges, enforce laws, and carry out other important duties.

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Federal Reserve Act (1913)

Creates federal reserve system.  Manages US money supply, sets interest rates, issues currency

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29

Federal Trade Commission

Government agency established in 1914 to provide regulatory oversight of business, industry, and monopoly activity.

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30

John J. Pershing

A military general who led the American Expeditionary Force. He was an important factor because without him leading the Expeditionary Force to war, the Allies may have lost.

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"Triple Entente”

Britain, France, and Russia all had economic and territorial ambitions. They all disliked Germany so they formed an alliance to protection

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"Triple Alliance”

Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy. They formed an ____ for protection from the Triple Entente. It lasted from 20 May 1882 until World War I in 1914

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33

Archduke Franz Ferdinand

He was the archduke of Austria who was assassinated in 1914 by a Serbian terrorist, Gavrilo Princip. This was the starting point of WWI.

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34

Lusitana

A British passenger ship that was sunk by a German U-Boat on May 7, 1915. 128 Americans died. The sinking greatly turned American opinion against the Germans, helping the move towards entering the war.

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Arthur Zimmerman

German foreign secretary who offered Mexico an alliance; note became public and prompted America to enter the war. If Mexico entered the war and the US did too Mexico may have been able to get back lost territory.

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Morrill Land Grant Act

1862 law in which the federal government distributed millions of acres of western lands to the state governments in order to fund state agricultural colleges

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37

Sherman Anti-Trust Act

First federal action against monopolies and trusts that interfere with trade and economic completions

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38

Interstate Commerce Act

1887 is a United States federal law that was designed to regulate the railroad industry, particularly its monopolistic practices. The Act required that railroad rates be "reasonable and just," but did not empower the government to fix specific rates.

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39

Interstate Commerce Commission

The first federal regulatory agency, established in 1887 to oversee railroad practices.

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40

Granger Movement

A group of agrarian organizations that worked to increase the political and economic power of farmers. They opposed corrupt business practices and monopolies and supported relief for debtors. Predecessor (after) Farmer’s Alliances.

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Oliver H. Kelly

Considered the "Father" of the Order of Patrons of Husbandry (more commonly known as "The Grange"). a fraternal organization for American farmers that encouraged farm families to band together for their common economic and political good.

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42

Farmers’ Alliance

This was the first "national" organization of the farmers, which led to the creation of the Populist Party. It sponsored social gatherings, were active in politics, organized cooperatives, and fought against the dominance of the railroads and manufacturers.

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43

People’s (Populist) Party

It was a political group that gained much support from farmers who turned to them to fight political unfairness. They used a progressive platform. Free coinage of silver and more paper money in circulation. Abolish national banking system in favor of local banks. Government owned railroads. Graduated income tax. Popular vote for U.S. Senators. Referendum

 

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James Baird Weaver

American politician who leaned toward agrarian radicalism; he twice ran unsuccessfully for the U.S. presidency, 1st Presidential candidate for People’s party (1892).

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45

William Jennings Bryan

A politician who was a dominant force in the liberal wing of the Democratic Party. Did not support the Gold Standard, railroads, or banks. Supporter of populist Dem. Promoted Free Silver, anti-imperialism, and trust-busting. Populist and Democratic nominee (1896).

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Manifest Destiny

The idea that Americans were destined to expand into the West and cultivate and civilize the country from coast to coast and further into other countries too.

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47

Josiah Strong

He was a leader of the Third Great Awakening and a founder of the Social Gospel movement that sought to apply Protestant religious principles to solve the social ills brought on by industrialization, urbanization, and immigration. Author of “Our Country: It’s Possible Future and it’s present crisis.”

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48

Alfred Thayer Mahan

He was a Naval Admiral who was a very effective advocate of imperialism. In the book, The Influence of Sea Power Upon History, Mahan claimed that countries with sea power were the great nations of history.

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49

James G. Blaine

A U.S Senator form Maine who led the “Half-Breeds” in the republican party and was known by his admirers ad the “Plumed KNight”. Politician who pushed for better communication and relationships between American nations, and who wanted to open trade throughout the continent. This led to political cooperation between nations (Such as the Pan-American Conference).

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50

William Hooper

A Boston trader who became the first of many Americans to buy land and establish a sugar plantation on the islands.

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51

Yellow Press/Journalism

A style of newspaper reporting that emphasized sensationalism over facts. During its heyday in the late 19th century, it was one of many factors that helped push the United States and Spain into war in Cuba and the Philippines, leading to the acquisition of overseas territory by the United States.

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52

U.S.S. Maine

Exploded and sank in Havana Harbor; 260 Americans died. Although it was later concluded that it was an internal explosion caused by a fire in the coal bunker, the sinking of the ship provided an excuse for those eager for war with Spain.

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53

John Hay

American secretary of state who attempted to preserve Chinese independence and protect American interests in China; author of Open Door Policy. He also called the Spanish-American War a “splendid little war”.

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54

George Dewey

United States naval officer remembered for his victory at Manila Bay in the Spanish-American War, U.S. naval commander who led the American attack on the Philippines.

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55

William Shafter

The American commander in Cuba who moved toward Santiago, which he planned to surround and capture. On his way, he defeated Spanish forces at Las Guasimos.

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56

Battle of San Juan Hill

This Battle (July 1, 1898), also known as the battle for the San Juan Heights, was a decisive battle of the Spanish-American War. The San Juan heights was a north-south running elevation about two kilometers east of Santiago de Cuba, Cuba. It was led by Theodore Roosevelt and the Rough Riders. 

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57

Platt Amendment

Barred Cuba from making treaties with other nations; it gave the U.S. the right to intervene in Cuba to preserve independence, life, and property; and it required Cuba to permit American naval stations on its territory.

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58

Jones Act (1917)

Granted Puerto Ricans statutory U.S. citizenship (Granted by law and Congress n  can revoke citizenship). Had opposition from Puerto Rican Government. Made Puerto Ricans eligible for military draft. Can't vote for President of the U.S. on the island. Altered PR governmental structure, establishing two legislative houses. Made English the official language of PR.

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59

Emilio Aguinaldo

He was a Filipino leader who fought first against Spain and then against the United States for Filipino independence. He was also a Filipino revolutionary, politician, and military leader who was officially recognized as the first and the youngest President of the Philippines (1899-1901).

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60

Open Door Policy

Policy proposed by McKinley to England, Germany, Russia, France, Japan, and Italy. Each nation with a "sphere of Influence" in China was to allow other nations to trade freely and equally in its sphere.

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61

Progressive Movement

A movement, or groups of different reform movements, that took place at the turn of the 20th century until WWI directly caused by industrialization and urbanization. This movement sought to improve life in the industrial age by making moderate political changes and social improvements through governmental action. They wanted to limit the power of corporations, improve democracy so it benefited the people, and strengthen Justice. Grassroots “bottom up” movement. Reaction to the down side of industrialization – political corruption, problems in the cities, etc. Theodore Roosevelt, William Howard Taft and Woodrow Wilson are considered progressives

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62

Ida Tarbell

She was a "Muckraker" who wrote in the magazine McClure's (1921). As a younger woman, in 1904, Tarbell made her reputation by publishing the history of the Standard Oil Company, the "Mother of Trusts."

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63

Upton Sinclair

He was the author of the sensational novel, THE JUNGLE, published in 1906. His intention was to describe the conditions of canning factory workers. Instead, Americans were disgusted by his descriptions of dirty food production. His book influenced consumers to demand safer canned products.

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64

Lincoln Steffens

U.S. journalist and reformer. He worked for New York City newspapers (1892 - 1901) and was managing editor of McClure's Magazine (1901 - 06), where he began his famous muckraking articles — later published as The Shame of the Cities (1904) — exposing corruption in politics and big business.

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65

Social Gospel

The effort to make faith a tool of social reform. A reform movement led by Protestant ministers who used religious doctrine to demand better housing and living conditions for the urban poor. Popular at the turn of the twentieth century, it was closely linked to the settlement house movement, which brought middle-class, Anglo-American service volunteers into contact with immigrants and working people.

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66

Salvation Army

This welfare organization came to the US from England in 1880 and sought to provide food, shelter, and employment to the urban poor while preaching temperance and morality

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67

Elizabeth Cady Stanton

Abolitionists and women’s rights advocates who co-organized the Seneca Falls Convention. A member of the women's rights movement in 1840. She was a mother of seven, and she shocked other feminists by advocating suffrage for women at the first Women's Rights Convention in Seneca, New York 1848. Stanton read a "Declaration of Sentiments" which declared "all men and women are created equal." Worked behind the scenes.

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68

Susan B. Anthony

Abolitionists and one of the most iconic and active leaders of the early’s women movement. Pioneer crusader for the woman suffrage movement in the United States and president (1892-1900) of the National American Woman Suffrage Association. She was the face of the movement.

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69

National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA)

An organization founded in 1890 to demand the vote for women. It argued that women should be allowed to vote because their responsibilities in the home and family made them indispensable in the public decision-making process.

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70

Anna Howard Shaw

This woman was a Boston social worker who led the National American Woman Suffrage Association with Carrie Chapman Catt. Under her leadership, the membership of the NAWSA grew from about 13,000 in 1893 to over 2 million in 1917. 

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71

Carrie Chapman Catt

A suffragette and journalist from iowa who was president of the National Women's Suffrage Association, and founder of the International Woman Suffrage Alliance. Instrumental in obtaining passage of the 19th Amendment in 1920.

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72

American Expeditionary Force (AEF)

Consisted of the United States Armed Forces sent to Europe under the command of General John J. Pershing in 1917 to help fight World War I. During the United States campaigns in World War I, the AEF fought in France alongside French and British allied forces in the last year of the war, against German forces. They entered with the allies , this created the selective service act where three million were drafted and another two million enlisted.

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73

Bernard Baruch

Established the War Industries Board in 1917; a prosperous businessman.

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74

Committee on Public Information (CPI)

Distributes 75 million pieces of pro-war material to churches, schools offices, homes, influences newspapers to print pro-war stories. Also, Sedition Act passed aimed at silencing anti-war factions. A propaganda machine headed by George Creel, created numerous posters, films, and pamphlets explaining the war to Americans and encouraging them to purchase war bonds to gain support for WWI.

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75

Espionage Act

1917, imposed sentences of up to twenty years on anyone found guilty of aiding the enemy, obstructing recruitment of soldiers, or encouraging disloyalty. It allowed the postmaster general to remove from the mail any materials that incited treason or insurrection.

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Sabotage Act

This expanded the meaning of the Espionage Act to make illegal any public expression of opposition to the war; in practice, they allowed officials to prosecute anyone who criticized the president or the government. This worked along with the Sedition Act.

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The 14 Points

Woodrow Wilson's peace plan to end WWI. It calls for free trade; an end to secret pacts between nations; freedom of the seas; arms reduction; and the creation of a world organization (League of Nations).

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78

League of Nations

A world organization established in 1920 to promote international cooperation and peace. It was first proposed in 1918 by President Woodrow Wilson, although the United States never joined the League.

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79

Henry Cabot Lodge

He was a Republican Senator from Massachusetts who disagreed with the Versailles Treaty, and who was the chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee. He mostly disagreed with the section that called for the League to protect a member who was being threatened. He vetoed the first treaty.

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80

Great Migration

 The movement in large numbers of African Americans during and after World War I from the rural South to industrial cities of the Northeast and Midwest. One million people left the fields and small towns of the South for the urban North during this period (1916-1930).

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81

A. Mitchell Palmer

An attorney Generald who went on "Palmer Raids' searching for suspected communists in America, where they raided the homes of suspected radical organizations.

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82

Red Scare

It began following the Bolshevik Russian Revolution of 1917. It was a nationwide fear of communists, socialists, and anarchists.

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83

Sedition Acts

1918, Made it a crime to criticize/speak against the government or government officials. Opponents claimed that it violated citizens' rights, guaranteed by the First Amendment.

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84

J. Edgar Hoover

He was Mitchell Palmer’s assistant who went on raids who helped orchestrate Plamer Raids. FBI directer who urged HUAC to hold public hearings on communist subversion to find communist sympathisers and fellow travelers to isolate them and their influence. FBI sends agents to infiltrate groups suspected of subversion and wiretap telephones.

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85

Bartolomeo Vanzetti, Nicola Sacco

Anarchists, Italian immigrants, spoke with thick accents. Convicted of murdering shoe factory pay officer. Judge said that they were probably guilty. Many believed they were convicted due to red scare hysteria.

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86

Andrew Mellon

Secretary of the Treasury during the 1920s and under Harding.Government support for industry. Pro-business Republican administrations (Harding, Coolidge, Hoover). Government backs management in labor disputes.Public opinion generally pro-business.Had the theory that high taxes forced rich to invest in tax-exempt securities rather than factories that provided prosperous payrolls. His followers were called Mellonites. He helped engineer a series of tax reductions and reduced national debt by $10 billion.

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87

Henry Luce and Briton Hadden

Creators of the Time Magazine which condensed the news of the week into a brief accessible and lively format for those who disliked newspapers

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88

DeWitt and Lila Wallace

Founded od the Reader’s Digest one of first mass circulation magazines.

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89

The Jazz Singer

First film with sound, known as a "talkie"; changed motion picture industry; starred Al Jolson. 

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90

Al Jolson

A white performer; used blackface in talking films such as The Jazz Singer.

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91

Thomas Hunt Morgan

Pioneer in genetic research. His work helped open the path to understanding how genes could recombine- a critical discovery that led to advanced experiments in hybridization and genetics. He used fruit flies in his experiments to show how genes were transmitted and how they could be recombined.

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92

Howard Aiken

Leader of researchers at MIT, built a more complex computer with memory capable of multiplying eleven digit numbers in 3 seconds, improving bush’s computer. 

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93

“American Plan”

A euphemism for the open shop; the crusade for this became a pretext for a harsh campaign of union busting. Term that some U.S. employers in the 1920s used to describe their policy of refusing to negotiate with unions. Demonstrated laissez-faire economics.It is the term that most United States employers in the 1920s used to describe their policy of refusing to negotiate with unions. The policy promoted union-free "open shops", where workers would not be required to join a labor union

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94

KDKA

The first commercial radio station in America. Located in Pittsburgh and began broadcasting in 1920.

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95

National Broadcasting Company

NBC, This established a permanent network of stations to distribute daily programs.

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96

21st  Amendment

Alcoholic beverages are once again legal in the United States. 18th Amendment is repealed. (1933)

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97

Margaret Sanger

American leader of the movement to legalize birth control during the early 1900's. As a nurse in the poor sections of New York City, she had seen the suffering caused by unwanted pregnancy. Founded the first birth control clinic in the U.S. and the American Birth Control League, which later became Planned Parenthood.

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98

F. Scott Fitzgerald

A novelist & chronicler of the Jazz Age. His novel The Great Gatsby (1925) exposed the shallowness of the lives of the wealthy & privileged of the era.

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99

Harlem Renaissance

Outburst of creative activity among African-Americans in all fields of art in the 1920s; began as discussions in Manhattan and turned into movement of African-American expression

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100

John T. Scopes

Tennessee v Scopes where he was charged for teaching the theory of evolution because it was thought to conflict with the creation theories.

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