Chapter 2: principles of ecology

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Biology

104 Terms

1

ecology

specific discipline in which the relationships among living organisms and the interactions are studied

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2

biotic factors

"living factors in organism's environment like migratory birds, food sources"

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3

abiotic factors

"nonliving factors in an organism's environment like temp, sunlight, raingall"

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4

population example

school of fish

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5

ecosystem example

aquarium or puddle

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6

ecosystem survivival increases when

different species are using resources in diff ways

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7

habitat

area where an organism lives

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8

niche

role or position that an organisms has in its environment: how it meets needs for food, shelter, reproduction

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9

competition

when more than one organism uses a resource at the same time

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10

predation

act of one organism pursuing and consuming another organism for food

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11

symbiosis

close relationship that exists when two or more species live together; mutualism, commensalism and parasitism

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12

mutualism

relationship between two or more otfs that live closely together and benefit from each other

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13

ex of mutualism

fungi and algae; algae provides food for fungi, fungi provides habitat

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14

commensalism

relationship in which one org benefits and the other is neither helped nor harmed

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15

ex of commensalism

clownfish and sea anemone, clown fish safe from predators in stinging anemone

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16

parasitism

reltship in which one org benefits at expense of other

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17

autotrophs

org that collects energy from sunlight or inorganic substances to provide food, foundation of ecosystems

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18

how do autotrophs get energy

photosynthesis

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19

heterotroph

org that gets its energy by consuming other orgs

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20

herbivore

heterotroph that eats only plants

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21

carnivores

heterotrophs that prey on others

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22

omnivores

orgs that eat both plants and animals

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23

detrivores

eat fragments of dead matter, return nutrients to soil, air and water where nutrients can be reused

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24

trophic level

each step in a food chain or food web

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25

first trophic level ever

autotrophs

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26

food chains

simple model that shows how energy flows through an ecosystem

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27

Food webs.

A model representing the many interconnected food chains and pathways in which energy flows through a group of organisms.,

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28

Biomass

the total mass of living matter at each trophic level.

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29

Ecological pyramid.

diagram that can show the relative amounts of energy, biomass, or numbers of organisms at each trophic level in an ecosystem.

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30

Natural processes cycle matter through the.

Biosphere.

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31

Nutrient.

Chemical substance that an Organism must obtain from its environment to sustain life and to undergo life processes. For example, carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus.

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32

Nitrogen fixation.

The process of capture and conversion of nitrogen into a form that is usable by plants.

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33

Dentrification

soil and bacteria converts fixed nitrogen compounds back into nitrogen gas, which returns it to the atmosphere

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34

how much energy is lost at each trophic level and due to what

90% of energy is lost due to heat

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35

photosynthetic autotrophs

produce energy from the sun

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36

chemosynthetic autotrophs

produce energy from chemicals

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37

primary consumers eat

herbivores and omni

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38

secondary consumers eat

carnivores and omnivores

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39

tertiary consumers eat

carnivores

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40

formula for photosynthesis

6CO2 + 6H20 = C6H12O6 + 6O2

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41

transpiration

evaporation of water from plants

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42

condensation

water vapour becomes liquid

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43

precipitation

any product of condensation that falls from clouds

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44

evaporation

liquid water to gaseous wate

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45

percolation

movement of water through soil

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46

ex of biotic factors

migratory birds, food sources

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47

ex of abiotic factors

temp, air currents, sunight, rain fall, nutrients availible

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48

how do orgs use energy

cellular processes, rest go back in environment

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49

how does energy move in a food chain

Uses a portion of the energy it obtains from the Organism it eats for cellular processes and the remaining energy is released into the surrounding environment and no longer is available to these organisms

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50

Denitrification

soil and bacteria converts fixed nitrogen compounds back into nitrogen gas, which returns it to the atmosphere

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51

what is nitrogen used for

to make proteins

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52

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53

ecology

specific discipline in which the relationships among living organisms and the interactions are studied

New cards
54

biotic factors

"living factors in organism's environment like migratory birds, food sources"

New cards
55

abiotic factors

"nonliving factors in an organism's environment like temp, sunlight, raingall"

New cards
56

population example

school of fish

New cards
57

ecosystem example

aquarium or puddle

New cards
58

ecosystem survivival increases when

different species are using resources in diff ways

New cards
59

habitat

area where an organism lives

New cards
60

niche

role or position that an organisms has in its environment: how it meets needs for food, shelter, reproduction

New cards
61

competition

when more than one organism uses a resource at the same time

New cards
62

predation

act of one organism pursuing and consuming another organism for food

New cards
63

symbiosis

close relationship that exists when two or more species live together; mutualism, commensalism and parasitism

New cards
64

mutualism

relationship between two or more otfs that live closely together and benefit from each other

New cards
65

ex of mutualism

fungi and algae; algae provides food for fungi, fungi provides habitat

New cards
66

commensalism

relationship in which one org benefits and the other is neither helped nor harmed

New cards
67

ex of commensalism

clownfish and sea anemone, clown fish safe from predators in stinging anemone

New cards
68

parasitism

reltship in which one org benefits at expense of other

New cards
69

autotrophs

org that collects energy from sunlight or inorganic substances to provide food, foundation of ecosystems

New cards
70

how do autotrophs get energy

photosynthesis

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71

heterotroph

org that gets its energy by consuming other orgs

New cards
72

herbivore

heterotroph that eats only plants

New cards
73

carnivores

heterotrophs that prey on others

New cards
74

omnivores

orgs that eat both plants and animals

New cards
75

detrivores

eat fragments of dead matter, return nutrients to soil, air and water where nutrients can be reused

New cards
76

trophic level

each step in a food chain or food web

New cards
77

first trophic level ever

autotrophs

New cards
78

food chains

simple model that shows how energy flows through an ecosystem

New cards
79

Food webs.

A model representing the many interconnected food chains and pathways in which energy flows through a group of organisms.,

New cards
80

Biomass

the total mass of living matter at each trophic level.

New cards
81

Ecological pyramid.

diagram that can show the relative amounts of energy, biomass, or numbers of organisms at each trophic level in an ecosystem.

New cards
82

Natural processes cycle matter through the.

Biosphere.

New cards
83

Nutrient.

Chemical substance that an Organism must obtain from its environment to sustain life and to undergo life processes. For example, carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus.

New cards
84

Nitrogen fixation.

The process of capture and conversion of nitrogen into a form that is usable by plants.

New cards
85

Dentrification

soil and bacteria converts fixed nitrogen compounds back into nitrogen gas, which returns it to the atmosphere

New cards
86

how much energy is lost at each trophic level and due to what

90% of energy is lost due to heat

New cards
87

photosynthetic autotrophs

produce energy from the sun

New cards
88

chemosynthetic autotrophs

produce energy from chemicals

New cards
89

primary consumers eat

herbivores and omni

New cards
90

secondary consumers eat

carnivores and omnivores

New cards
91

tertiary consumers eat

carnivores

New cards
92

formula for photosynthesis

6CO2 + 6H20 = C6H12O6 + 6O2

New cards
93

transpiration

evaporation of water from plants

New cards
94

condensation

water vapour becomes liquid

New cards
95

precipitation

any product of condensation that falls from clouds

New cards
96

evaporation

liquid water to gaseous wate

New cards
97

percolation

movement of water through soil

New cards
98

ex of biotic factors

migratory birds, food sources

New cards
99

ex of abiotic factors

temp, air currents, sunight, rain fall, nutrients availible

New cards
100

how do orgs use energy

cellular processes, rest go back in environment

New cards

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