Astronomy Midterm Review

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Neil Armstrong

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1

Neil Armstrong

1st man on the moon

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2

Robert Goddard

American Rocketry Expert

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3

Sally Ride

1st American woman in space

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4

Ed White

1st American EVA - Gemini 4

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5

John Glenn

1st American sent into orbit

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6

Gus Grissom

Commander of the 1st Gemini mission/ died in Apollo 1 fire

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7

Ron Sega

Nordonia graduate

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8

Judith Resnik

Akron native that died on challenger

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9

Yuri Gagarin

1st person in space - Vostok 1

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10

Alan Shepard

Commander of Apollo 14/ 1st American in space

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11

John Young

Commander of 1st space shuttle

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12

Werner von Braun

German Rocketry Expert

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13

Chuck Yeager

1st person to break the sound barrier

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14

Alexei Leonov

1st EVA - Vostok 2

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15

Jim Lovell

Commander of Apollo 13

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16

Buzz Aldrin

2nd man on the moon

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17

Valentina Tereshkova

1st woman in space

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18

Christa McAuliffe

teacher chosen to be on Challenger

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19

Micheal Collins

Apollo 11 lunar landing, didn’t walk

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20

Mir

Russian space station used in 90’s (Peace)

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21

Gemini 4

Ed White - 2nd crewed NASA spaceflight

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22

Vostok 1

1st Russian shuttle

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23

Apollo 8

1st moon orbit

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24

Challenger

Shuttle that exploded because of a faulty O-ring and freezing temps

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25

V-2

Worlds 1st long range ballistic missle

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26

Freedom 7

Alan Shepard’s Capsule

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27

Apollo 17

Last Apollo Mission

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28

Enterprise

1st space shuttle/ only glide and landing tests

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29

Soyuz

Russian Capsule

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30

Apollo 13

Oxygen tanks exploded - led to aborted lunar landing

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31

X-1

1st plane faster than sound

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32

Colombia

Space shuttle destroyed in 2003/ foam strike on re-entry

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33

Buran

Soviet space shuttle

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34

Liberty Bell 7

Gus Grissom’s Capsule

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35

Explorer 1

1st U.S. satellite

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36

Skylab

1st U.S. space shuttle

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37

Friendship 7

John Glenn’s Mercury Capsule

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38

Apollo 11

1st Apollo mission to land on the moon

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39

ISS

International Space Station

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40

Spirit of St. Louis

1st Trans-Atlantic flight performed by Charles Lindberg

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41

Layers on the sun

Photosphere, Chromosphere, Corona, Heliosphere

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42

Photosphere

most visible, emits light, “granules” 15 - 20 minute lifespan

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43

Chromosphere

above Photosphere, higher temp, not visible to naked eye

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44

Corona

only visible during total solar eclipse, hottest layer, low density

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45

Heliosphere

last outer layer

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46

HR Diagram Categories

Main Sequence, White Dwarf, Red Giant, Red Super giants

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47

7 Spectral Types

OBAFGKM

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48

Why do larger m.s. stars live shorter lifetimes?

Larger stars live shorter lives because they “run out of fuel faster”. Larger stars need more energy to burn in order to keep itself stable. This is the mass-luminosity relationship, larger mass = more luminosity.

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49

How can astronomers determine the mass of stars?

By studying the gravitational force it exerts on other objects

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50

Proton-Proton Chain

Hydrogen nuclei fuse together to form Helium nuclei in the core.

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51

Differential Rotation

The different sections of an object rotate at different rates, causes magnetic fields to get warped and atmospheric phenomena

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52

Cepheid Variable

1st “standard candle” for galactic distance

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53

Dark Matter

“Missing mass” neither emits/reflects light, has no gravitational force, can be observed by gravitational lensing

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54

Rotation Curve

the plot of the speed of stars v.s. the distance from galaxy

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55

Hubble’s Law

the relationship between galaxy distance and speed

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56

Galactic Cannibalism

When 2 galaxies collide and merge into 1 over several million years

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57

Steady State Theory

Prior to Hubble, most believed the universe was infinite (age/size) and static (not changing)

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58

Big Bang Theory

Assumed that space, time, and energy already existed →rapid explosion → everything formed after

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59

Big RIP Theory

“Dark Energy” is pushing the acceleration of expansion → will eventually cause all particles to be torn apart

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60

Exoplanet

Planets that are outside of our Solar System/ 5,284 detected/ orbit stars/ found w/ “Wobble Method” and “ Light Curve/Kepler"

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61

Weird Terrain

Opposite side of Mercury, not consistent w/ rest of planet, thought to be the effect large impact.

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62

Basalt/Breccia/Anorthosite

Found in Maria, Craters, Highlands

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63

Plate Tectonics

The plates under land that shift: Convergent - 2 plates collide, Divergent - 2 plates move plates

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64

Albedo

The ability of a surface to reflect light

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65

Theories of Moon Formation

Condensation: formed w/ S.S. Fission: Earth and moon were conjoined and broke apart. Capture: We caught the moon. Large Impact: Debris from Theia hitting earth collected together

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66

Tidal Heating

Tidal Friction/ orbital + rotational energy is dissipated as heat in the interior of the planet

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67

Shepherd Satellite

A moon that orbits near the edge of a planetary ring

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68

Dwarf Planet

A planet that doesn’t meet the requirements to be a planet.

Orbits a star/ large and spherical to have gravitational pull/ must have a clear path

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69

Meteor Shower

When Earth passes through a comet’s tail

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70

Asteroid Belt

Separates Mars + Jupiter ( Inner and Outer), most asteroids live here

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71

Oort Cloud

Where billions of comets are herded, “long period comets”, beyond Pluto

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72

Kuiper Belt

Many comets, asteroids, and other icy entities beyond neptune

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73

Parallax

The displacement of a star based on our POV

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74

Aristotle

Used basic observations and principles to create “Philosophy of Astronomy” → Earth is stationary/center of universe (geocentrism), objects orbit in ellipticals (spheres), unchanging, perfection

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75

Ptolemy

devised mathematical model based on Aristotle’s work, needed to account for retrograde motion, planet → epicycle → deferent, Ptolemaic Model lasted 1,500 years

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76

Copernicus

Cleric, wanted to fix Ptolemaic model/ “On the Revolution of Heavenly Spheres”, published just before death/ “Heliocentric Model” *One of the greatest paradigm shift

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77

Tycho

Nobleman, saw many errors w/ Ptomely’s predictions through exact observation, observed a supernova → proved Aristotle wrong, hired mathematician who stole his books and data after he died.

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78

Kepler

Came up with 3 laws of Planetary motion → Kepler telescope

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79

Galileo

1st scientist-ish to run experiments, child’s toy into telescope/ observed moon (mountains, valleys, craters) NOT PERFECT/ Jupiter’s 4 moons, published “The Starry Messenger” → sunspots/ Venus has phases/ church tried to stop him but he continued and ended up begin on house arrest until he died

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80

Perseverance Rover

Mars

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81

New Horizons Main Destination

Pluto

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82

Cassini

Saturn

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83

Juno Prove

Jupiter

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84

Maxwell Montes

Venus

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85

Charon

Pluto

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86

Titan

Saturn

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87

Triton

Neptune

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88

Titania

Uranus

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89

Ganymede

Jupiter

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90

Phobos

Mars

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91

Caloris Basin

Mercury

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92

Mariner Valley

Mars

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93

IO

Jupiter

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94

Enceladus

Saturn

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95

Densest Planet

Earth

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96

Messenger

Mercury

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97

Olympus Mons

Mars

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98

Last planet visited by Voyager 2

Neptune

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99

Most massive planet

Jupiter

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100

Planet with greatest axial tilt

Venus

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