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What is the goal of sustainable development?

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596 Terms

1

What is the goal of sustainable development?

To meet the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.

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2

What are the social sustainable development goals?

No poverty, Zero Hunger, Good Health and Well-being, Quality Education, Gender Equality.

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3

What are the economic sustainable development goals?

Affordable and clean energy, Decent work and economic growth, Industry innovation and infrastructure, Reduced inequalities, Sustainable cities and communities, Responsible consumption and production.

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4

What are the environmental sustainable development goals?

Clean water and sanitation. Climate action. Life below water. Life on land.

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5

What are other sustainable development goals?

Partnerships for the goals, Peace, Justice and String institutions.

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6

According to Brundtland, what is sustainable development?

Sustainable development is seeking to meet the needs of the present without compromising those of future generations.

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7

According to David Orr, how would you define sustainable development?

Sustainable development is the careful meshing of humans' purposes with the larger patterns and flows of the natural world.

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8

According to Bill Reed what is sustainability?

Sustainability is the process that supports and improves the health of the systems that sustain life.

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9

What does sustainability encompass?

Human wellbeing, the environment wellbeing, and the economy wellbeing.

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10

What is the relationship between humans and the environment in sustainability?

The environment, the ecosystem in which we live, is an essential component of sustainability as it directly impacts human wellbeing.

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11

How does sustainability relate to the economy?

The economy is another aspect of sustainability as it provides the means and resources necessary to support and improve the health of the systems that sustain life.

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12

What are the two examples of human activities that impact the environment?

1)Land and water use for housing, agriculture, industry, transportation, and recreation 2)Emission or discharge of chemical substances to air, land and water.

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13

What are some examples of chemical changes due to human activities?

1)Changes to chemical constituents of soil and sediment (e.g., increased acidity and turbidity of waters, removal of nutrients from soils) 2)Increase concentration of emitted substances in air, water and soil, secondary reactions(e.g. ozone build up in certain areas).

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14

What are some examples of physical changes due to human activities?

1)Deforestation and other alteration of landscape and waterways 2)Change to the built environment from deposition and chemical attack.

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15

What are some examples of biological changes due to human activities?

  1. Changes in the viability of plants, fish, animals, and microorganisms due to altered habitat and chemical consistent possibly leading to species successions, extinctions, migration, or diseases 2)Injury or illness to people, plants, animals from exposure to and/or accumulation of chemicals and their derivatives.

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16

What are engineers primarily involved in?

Problems related to technology development and deployment.

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17

What range of activities are engineers responsible for?

Activities that directly or indirectly contribute to environmental change.

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18

What is anthropogenic environmental change?

Changes associated with human activities.

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19

What are examples of anthropogenic environmental changes?

1)Changes associated with land use (including depletion to human activities) 2)Changes induced by emission or residues from products and industrial processes.

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20

What are the guiding principles for engineers to achieve sustainability?

1)Maximize the value of their activity towards building a sustainable future 2)Apply professional and responsible judgment and take a leadership role 3)Seek multiple views to solve sustainable challenges 4)Manage risk to minimize adverse impact to people or the environment.

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21

What can engineers do to: Maximize the value of their activity towards building a sustainable future?

1)Recognize that through their activity may be local and immediate, the potential impacts of their work may be global and long-lasting 2)Understand other relevant social and cultural structures outside their own normal community of practice 3)Recognize the impacts of an engineering project on communities, global or local and incorporate the view and concerns of the communities.

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22

What can engineers do to: Apply professional and responsible judgment and take a leadership role?

1)Look at the broad picture 2)Ensure that their knowledge about sustainable development is up-to-date 3)Be prepared to influence the decision-making 4)Identify options that take account of economics, social and environmental outcomes 5)Ensure that offered solutions and options will contribute to sustainability 6)Be aware that there are inherently conflicting and unmeasurable aspects of sustainability.

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23

What can engineers do to: Seek multiple views to solve sustainable challenges?

1)Engage with stakeholders 2)Avoid working in isolation, involving other professionals 3)Utilize cross-disciplinary knowledge and diverse skills 4)Promote the important leadership role of the engineer in finding solutions to sustainability challenges for the benefit of society 5)Seek a balanced approach.

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24

What can engineers do to: Manage risk to minimize adverse impact to people or the environment?

1)Minimize damage to the people or the environment 2)Undertake a comprehensive risk assessment before a project begin 3)Ensure that the risk assessment includes the potential environmental, economic and social impacts beyond the lifetime of the engineering project 4)Adopt a precautionary approach where scientific knowledge is not conclusive 5)Instigate monitoring systems so that any environ and social impacts of engineering projects are identified in early stage

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25

What are the sources of environmental impacts?

Many environmental concerns are related to atmospheric emissions, water pollution, solid wastes, and natural resource depletion.

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26

What are the factors to consider in minimizing environmental impacts?

Material selection, Manufacturing processes and Energy use.

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27

What is material selection?

Material selection is the process of choosing alternative materials that are environmentally preferable and asking if the project can be done with less material without compromising function or reliability.

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28

What are manufacturing processes?

Manufacturing processes are methods that engineers devise to turn raw material into finished materials and products.

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29

What are the stages involved in transforming raw materials into finished products?

Refining, transport, transformation, and assembly.

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30

How does the production process contribute to environmental pollution?

It releases waste materials into the environment in the form of air pollutants, water pollutants, and solid waste.

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31

What does energy use encompass?

Everything from heating and cooling to appliances to powering our transportation system.

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32

Where does most of the world's energy come from today?

Fossil fuels.

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33

Do nuclear and renewable energy have environmental consequences?

Yes, nuclear and renewable energy also have environmental consequences.

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34

What does a Life Cycle Perspective provide?

A Life Cycle Perspective provides the "big picture" of how engineering decisions in any particular area affect the environment.

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35

What are the steps in an LCA?

1)Raw material 2)Manufacturing 3)Construction process 4)Use Phase 5)End of life 6)Other benefits and loads.

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36

What is the principle of conservation of mass in basic engineering?

Mass can neither be created nor destroyed.

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37

What is the equation for the first law of thermodynamics?

(total mass flow in) = (total mass flow out) + (change in energy stored).

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38

What is the equation for the rate of the first law of thermodynamics?

(total mass flow rate in) = (total mass flow rate out) + rate mass storage.

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39

What is the equation for steady flow?

(total mass flow rate in) = (total mass flow rate out)

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40

What does the Clean Air Act require the EPA to set?

National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS).

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41

What are the criteria air pollutants?

Particular Matters (PM), Ground-level Ozone, Carbon Monoxide (CO), Lead (Pb), Sulfur Dioxide (SO2), Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2).

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42

What are the units of measure for the air quality standards?

Part per million (ppm) by volume, part per billion (ppb) by volume, and micrograms per cubic meter air (µg/m).

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43

What are some sources of air pollutants?

Stationary fuels combustion, industrial and other processes, highway vehicles, non-road mobile sources.

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44

What are some examples of stationary fuels combustion sources?

electric utilities, industrial boilers

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45

What are some examples of industrial and other processes that contribute to air pollution?

metal smelters, petroleum refineries, cement kilns, dry cleaners

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46

What are some examples of non-road mobile sources of air pollution?

recreational and construction equipment, marine vessels, aircraft, locomotive.

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47

What is the definition of Criteria Air Pollutants?

A minute solid or liquid particles that are blown in the air.

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48

How is Particular Matter (PM) measured?

It is measured at either PM 10 or PM 2.5, which refers to the number of microns in size or less.

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49

Is there a safe level of particulate matter pollution?

No, there is no level considered 'safe' for particulate matter pollution.

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50

Why does the size of the particle matter?

It increases the severity of its impact.

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51

Which size of particles is most closely linked with adverse health effects?

Fine size particles.

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52

What adverse health effects are closely linked with fine size particles?

Asthma, bronchitis, emphysema, and various forms of heart disease.

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53

What are some sources of particulate matter?

industrial emissions, vehicle exhaust, smoke from open burning and residential wood heat.

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54

What is the criteria air pollutant Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2)?

It is a brownish gas that causes acute respiratory irritation at concentrations of 1 ppm for 15 minutes.

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55

What is the role of Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) in the formation of acid rain and ground-level ozone?

It is an important precursor to both acid rain and ground-level ozone formation through photochemical reactions.

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56

What are some fuels that produce Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) during combustion?

coal, fuel oil, diesel, gasoline.

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57

What is the main component of smog?

Ground-level ozone.

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58

What are the two main factors required for the production of smog?

Nix + Vacs + Sunlight and warm temperature + Ozone.

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59

What are the potential health effects of prolonged exposure to smog?

Damage to lung tissue, premature aging of the lungs, and contribution to chronic lung disease.

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60

Are VOCs carcinogenic?

Yes.

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61

What are the major sources of VOCs and NOx that contribute to smog formation?

Transportation sector, products containing solvents, industrial processes, and residential activities.

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62

What is the criteria air pollutant Carbon Monoxide(CO)?

Odourless and colourless gas.

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63

What is the main source of carbon monoxide (CO) emissions?

Incomplete combustion of fuels, mainly from cars.

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64

What are the effects of carbon monoxide (CO) inhalation?

It interferes with the blood's ability to carry oxygen to the brain, heart, and other tissues. It can also slow reflexes and cause fatigue, headache, confusion, nausea, and dizziness. Inhaling large amounts can cause death by suffocation.

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65

What were the total CO emissions in Canada in the year 2010?

8,717 Kilo tonnes (without open sources eg forest fires, prescribed burning).

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66

What are the primary emitting sources of CO in Canada?

transportation sources (on road and off-road motor vehicles and engines, marine, air), wood industry, aluminum industry, residential wood heating, other industrial sources (aluminum).

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67

What is the criteria air pollutant Sulphur Dioxide (SO2)?

It is a colourless gas with a strong odour and is an irritant to the eyes and respiratory tract.

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68

How is Sulphur Dioxide (SO2) generated?

It is generated by burning fossil fuels from smelters, power plants, refineries and internal combustion engines (including automotive).

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69

What are the major sources of lead air pollution?

Metals processing, waste incinerators, utilities, lead-acid battery and bar.

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70

How can lead affect the body depending on the level of exposure?

Lead can affect the nervous system, kidney functions, immune systems, and cardiovascular system.

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71

Who is especially sensitive to lead exposure?

Infants and children.

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72

What are some potential health effects of lead exposure?

Behavioural problems, learning deficits, lowered IQ.

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73

How can elevated lead in the environment affect plants and animals?

Decreased growth and reproduction.

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74

What are some examples of air toxics gases?

Hydrogen and chloride.

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75

What is an example of an air toxics compound?

Asbestos.

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76

Name three elements that can be considered air toxics.

Cadmium, mercury, chromium.

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77

What are some potential health risks associated with air toxics?

Cancer (lung, kidney, bone, stomach), harm to the nervous system and brain, birth defects, irritation to the eyes, nose and throat.

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78

What are the two types of acid deposition?

Wet deposition (rain, snow, cloud, fog) and dry deposition (dry particles, gas).

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79

At what pH level does rain and snow become problematic in terms of acidity?

pH < 5.

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80

What are the major causes of acid deposition?

Sulfur dioxide (SO2) and Nitric Acid (HNO3) in the atmosphere, which is converted to sulfuric acid (H2SO4).

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81

What are expected to reduce the rate of emissions from the electricity sector?

Current government regulations and changes in industrial practices

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82

What are the effects of acid rain on materials?

The acidic particles corrode metal and cause paint and stone to deteriorate. Damaged materials that need to be repaired or replaced, increased maintenance costs, loss of detail on stone and metal statues.

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83

What are the effects of ocean acidification on marine organism and ecosystems?

Some algae an seagrass may benefit from higher CO2 concentration in the ocean, as they may increase their photosynthetic and growth rates while more acidic environment

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84

What may cause coral reefs to become vulnerable to storm damage and slow the recovery rate?

Ocean acidification.

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85

Where is the thinning of the ozone layer most pronounced?

The thinning is most pronounced in the polar regions, especially Antarctica.

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86

What could be a major source of chlorine in the stratosphere?

Human-produced chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) liberate by UV radiations.

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87

What can chlorine do?

Chlorine could destroy extensive amounts of ozone.

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88

What is the Montreal Protocol?

The Montreal Protocol is an international agreement that began in 1987 to phase out the use of CFCs and reduce global consumption of ozone-depleting chemicals by 50% from 1986 to 1998.

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89

What is the purpose of the Montreal Protocol?

The purpose of the Montreal Protocol is to protect the ozone layer by reducing the production and consumption of ozone-depleting substances.

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90

What is the current status of ozone-depleting chemical consumption controlled by the Montreal Protocol?

By 2005, the consumption of ozone-depleting chemicals controlled by the Montreal Protocol had fallen by 90-95% in the participating countries.

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91

What is the greenhouse effect?

The greenhouse effect refers to the trapping of long waves (infrared radiation) inside the Earth's atmosphere, leading to an increase in temperature.

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92

How has the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere changed since the start of the Industrial Revolution?

It increased along with human emissions since the start of the Industrial Revolution.

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93

What is the current annual emission of greenhouse gases?

The current annual emission of greenhouse gases is more than 35 billion tons per year.

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94

What is the global warming potential (GWP) of CO2?

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95

What is the global warming potential (GWP) of CH4 (methane)?

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96

What is the global warming potential (GWP) of N2O (nitrous oxide)?

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97

What is the global warming potential (GWP) of HFC (hydrofluocarbons)?

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98

What is the global warming potential (GWP) of CF4 (Perfluocarbon)?

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99

What is the global warming potential (GWP) of SF6 (Sulfur Hexafluoride)?

23,900.

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100

What does GWP stand for?

GWP stands for the ratio of the radioactive forcing that would result from the emissions of one kilogram of the greenhouse gas to that from emission of one kg of carbon dioxide over a period of time (usually over 100 years).

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