Microbio - Exam 1

studied byStudied by 4 people
0.0(0)
get a hint
hint

acellular microorganisms

1 / 104

Tags and Description

chpt. 1-5

105 Terms

1

acellular microorganisms

prions, viruses

New cards
2

cellular microorganisms

bacteria, archaea, eukaryotes

New cards
3

ubiquitous

“found everywhere,” used to describe microbes’ presence

New cards
4

biotechnology

the use of microbes for commercial or industrial purposes

New cards
5

genetic engineering

area of biotechnology that manipulates the genetics of microbes/plants/animals to create new products and GMOs

New cards
6

recombinant DNA technology

makes it possible to transfer genetic material and alter DNA → GMO design

New cards
7

bioremediation

the use of present or introduced microbes to restore stability of an ecosystem or clean up toxic pollutants

New cards
8

pathogens

disease-causing microbes

New cards
9

infectious disease

any disease caused by a microorganism

New cards
10

smaller

bacterial and archaeal cells are about 10xs ___ than eukaryotic cells

New cards
11

types, metabolic capabilites

The Human Microbiome Project has demonstrated that the ___ of microbes found in and on humans are diverse, but the ___ are similar

New cards
12

cellulose

a long, fibrous polymer that provides plants and many microscopic algae cell walls with strength and rigidity

New cards
13

chitin

a polysaccharide similar to cellulose that makes up the exoskeleton of some fungi

New cards
14

peptidoglycan

a network of polysaccharide chains that provide structural support, protection, and nutrient/energy storage

the main sourceof structural support to the bacterial cell wall

New cards
15

glycocalyx

an outer coating on many cells that acts as a protective layer and also plays a role in attachment of the cells to other cells or surfaces

New cards
16

eukaryotes, bacteria, archaea

___ have organelles while ___ & ___ lack organelles

New cards
17

6 types of microorganisms

archaea, fungi, helminth, bacteria, protozoa, viruses

New cards
18

eukaryotic microorganisms

helminth, fungi, protozoa

New cards
19

prokaryotic microorganisms

bacteria, archaea

New cards
20

5 I’s of Microbiology

  1. inoculation

  2. incubation

  3. isolation

  4. inspection

  5. identification

New cards
21

inoculation

a sample is placed onto a media to culture a microbe

(5 I’s)

New cards
22

incubation

placing the medium container into a temperature-controlled chamber to encourage growth

(5 I’s)

New cards
23

pure culture

only one type of species in a culture

New cards
24

mixed culture

two or more species in a culture

New cards
25

contaminated culture

a pure or mixed culture plus an unwanted microbe in a culture

New cards
26

media classification

  1. physical state (liquid, semi-solid, solid)

  2. chemical composition

  3. functional type

New cards
27

general purpose media

media type that promotes growth in a broad spectrum of microbes

New cards
28

enriched media

media type that contains complex organic compounds for the growth of fastidious (having complex/precise nutrient requirements) microbes

New cards
29

selective media

media type that inhibits the growth of certain microbe(s) to isolate the particular microbe of study

New cards
30

differential media

media type that allows multiple types to grow but displays visible differences in how they grow

New cards
31

isolation

separating an individual bacterial cell to create a colony

(5 I’s)

New cards
32

inspection & identification

looking at the microscopic appearance, determining nutrient requirements, products given off during growth, and other characteristics

(5 I’s)

New cards
33

virus size

20-400 but up to 800-1500 nm

New cards
34

bacteria size

200 nm-750micro-m

New cards
35

protozoa size

100-300micro-m

New cards
36

principles of light microscopy

  1. magnification

  2. resolution

  3. contrast

New cards
37

objective lens, ocular lens

magnification occurs in 2 phases, first in the ___ and second in the ___

New cards
38

oil immersion lens (100x)

lens that reduces scatter to increase resolution

New cards
39

bright-field microscopy

  • most widely used type of light microscope

  • forms image when light is transmitted through specimen

  • can be used for live, unstained/preserved, and stained materials

New cards
40

dark-field microscopy

  • adapted from bright-field microscope by adding a “stop” to block light from entering the objective lens

  • used to visualize living cells that would be distorted by drying or heating or cannot be stained by usual methods

New cards
41

phase-contrast microscopy

  • used to observe intracellular structures such as organelles, endospores, etc.

New cards
42

fluorescence microscopy

  • uses a specially modified compound microscope with a UV light

  • the use of certain dyes show fluorescence

  • specimen is first coated/placed in contact with fluorescence source

  • used to diagnose infections and pinpoint particular cellular structures

New cards
43

confocal microscopy

  • uses a laser beam to scan various depths of the specimen

  • used on fluorescently stained specimens or to visualize live unstained cells/tissues

New cards
44

transmission electron microscope (TEM)

  • transmits electrons through specimen

  • used to view detail structure of cells and viruses

  • dark areas = denser areas

New cards
45

scanning electron microscope (SEM)

  • specimens are metal-coated while electrons scan back and forth over it

  • color is always added after, actual images are black and white

New cards
46

simple stain

stain that requires only a single dye and caused all the cells to appear the same color which reveals its shape, size, and arrangement

New cards
47

differential stain

stain type that uses 2 differently colored dyes (primary dye and counterstain) to distinguish cell types or parts

New cards
48

gram stain

differential stain type

  • gram positive = purple

  • gram negative = pink

New cards
49

acid-fast stain

differential stain type

  • acid-fast = reddish/purple

  • non-acid-fast = blue

New cards
50

endospore stain

differential stain type

  • endospores = green

  • vegetative cells = pink

New cards
51

capsular staining

  • used to observe an unstructured protective layer surround the cells of some bacteria and fungi

  • cell is negatively stained with India ink

New cards
52

flagellar staining

  • used to reveal tiny, slender filaments used by the bacteria for locomotion

  • these filaments are enlarged by depositing a coating on the outside of the filament and then staining it

New cards
53

bacteria vs eukaryote differences

  • DNA packaging; bacteria lack nucleus and histones

  • cell wall makeup (peptitoglycan - bacteria)

  • internal structures; bacteria lack membrane-bound organelles

New cards
54
  • cytoplasmic membrane

  • cytoplasm

  • ribosomes

  • chromosomes

all bacterial cells have ___ (4)

New cards
55
  • cell wall

  • glycocalyx

most bacterial cells have ___ (2)

New cards
56
  • flagella, pili, fimbriae

  • outer membrane

  • plasmids

  • endospores

some bacterial cells have ___ (4)

New cards
57

cocci, rod/bacillus

the two most common bacteria shapes are ___ & ___

New cards
58

diplocci

pairs of cocci

New cards
59

staphylococci

clusters of cocci

New cards
60

streptococci

chains of cocci

New cards
61

flagella and axial filaments

external bacterial structures (2) used for motility

New cards
62

fimbriae

small, bristle-like fibers that sprout off the surface of many bacterial cells and allow for adhesion between cells, allowing bacteria to colonize and infect host tissues

New cards
63

pili

used in cell-to-cell contact between bacterial cells (usually for the transfer of genetic material)

New cards
64

capsule

a type of glycocalyx that is formed by many pathogenic bacteria to protect against phagocytosis and produces a sticky character to colonies on agar

New cards
65

biofilms

groups of bacteria attached to a particular coating

ex: plague on teeth

New cards
66

cell envelope

part of bacterial cell that lies outside the cytoplasm

composed of: cell wall, cytoplasmic membrane, and (sometimes) outer membrane

New cards
67

bacterial cell wall

determines the shape of a bacterium, provides support and protection, composed of peptidoglycan (contributes rigidity)

New cards
68

gram-positive cell wall

cell wall that lacks outer membrane

New cards
69

crystal violet

1st step of Gram staining

all cells appear purple

New cards
70

Gram’s iodine

2nd step of Gram staining

the mordant (stabilizer) causes the dye to form large complexes in the cell wall

New cards
71

alcohol

3rd step of Gram staining

dissolves the lipids in the outer membrane and removes dye from the gram-negative cells

all appear purple (+) or colorless (-)

New cards
72

safranin (red dye)

4th step of Gram staining

dyes colorless (-) cells to make their presence apparent

New cards
73

cytoplasm

internal bacterial structure

composed of sugars, amino acids, and salts and is 70-80% water

New cards
74

ribosomes

sites of protein synthesis

composed of rRNA (60%) and protein (40%)

New cards
75

endospores

dormant bodies that can resist extremes of heat, drying, freezing, radiation, chemicals, etc.

exist in either a dormant or vegetative stage

New cards
76

Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology

classification system for bacteria and archaea that is based on rRNA sequencing

New cards
77

Bergey’s Manual of Determinative Bacteriology

classification system for bacteria and archaea based on phenotypic characteristics

New cards
78

chitin, no cell wall

fungi cell walls are made of ___ while protozoa and helminths have ___

New cards
79

nucleus

internal eukaryotic structure that contains DNA and is separated from the cytoplasm by an envelope

New cards
80

endoplasmic reticulum

eukaryotic internal structure that is a series of membrane tunnels used in transport and storage

may be smooth or rough

New cards
81

Golgi body

eukaryotic internal structure that is the site of protein modification and shipping

New cards
82

vacuoles

internal eukaryotic structure that are sacs containing fluid or solid particles

New cards
83

mitochondria

internal eukaryotic structure that generates ATP for the cell

New cards
84

cytoskeleton

internal eukaryotic structure made of protein strands for structure, movement, and transport

New cards
85

yeasts

a type of fungal cell

  • round-oval shape

  • asexual reproduction (budding)

New cards
86

hyphae

long, threadlike cells found in the bodies of filamentous fungi

makes up the mycelium

New cards
87

mycelium

woven, intertwining mass of hyphae that makes up the body or colony of a mold

New cards
88

pseudohypha

chain of yeast cells

New cards
89

three types of fungal disease in humans

  1. community-acquired infections

  2. hospital-associated infections

  3. opportunistic infections

New cards
90

trophozoite

motile feeding stage of protozoa that requires ample food and moisture to stay active

New cards
91

cyst

dormant, resting stage of protozoa when conditions in the environment become unfavorable

New cards
92

helminth life cycle

fertilized egg, larva, adult

New cards
93

human genome

8% of the ___ consists of sequences that come from viruses

New cards
94

active/inactive

terms used to describe viruses instead of alive/dead

New cards
95

properties of viruses

  • ubiquitous in nature

  • ultramicroscopic in size

  • not cells, compact and economical structure

  • do not independently fulfill characteristics of life

  • basic structure: protein shell capsid that surrounds nucleic acid core

  • nucleic acid that is either DNA or RNA (not both)

  • lacks enzymes for most metabolic processes and lacks machinery for synthesizing proteins

New cards
96

capsid

a protein shell that surrounds viral nucleic acid

New cards
97

spikes

projections from the nucleocapsid or envelope of a virus that allows it to dock with host cells

New cards
98

virion

a fully formed virus that is able to establish an infection

New cards
99

helical, icosahedral

two types of viral capsids

New cards
100

phases of viral replication

  1. adsorption

  2. penetration

  3. uncoating

  4. synthesis

  5. assmebly

  6. release

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 20 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 3455 people
Updated ... ago
4.4 Stars(12)
note Note
studied byStudied by 2 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 2793 people
Updated ... ago
4.9 Stars(25)
note Note
studied byStudied by 5 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 51 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 8 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 13 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard294 terms
studied byStudied by 22 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard38 terms
studied byStudied by 1 person
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard112 terms
studied byStudied by 24 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard243 terms
studied byStudied by 39 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard32 terms
studied byStudied by 228 people
Updated ... ago
4.8 Stars(8)
flashcards Flashcard49 terms
studied byStudied by 48 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard34 terms
studied byStudied by 2 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard40 terms
studied byStudied by 4 people
Updated ... ago
4.0 Stars(1)