CC LEC LIPIDS AND LIPOPROTEINS

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Lipids

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162 Terms

1

Lipids

commonly referred as fats are a rich source of energy and efficient way for storage of excess calories

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2

Steroid hormones

Lipids are also a source of what type of hormones?

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3

Fatty acids

building blocks of lipids

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4

Free or unesterified

Fatty acids may exist as ____________________ form in the plasma

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5

Albumin

Where is fatty acids mostly bound to?

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6

Saturated fatty acids

FA w/ no double bonds

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7

Unsaturated

FA with double bonds

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8

Triglycerides

the main storage form of lipid in the body

composed of 3 molecules of FA and a glycerol backbone

<p>the main storage form of lipid in the body</p><p>composed of 3 molecules of FA and a glycerol backbone</p>
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9

triacylglycerol

other name of triglycerides, abbreviated as TAG

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10

Saturated triglycerides

fats coming from animal sources, solid @ room temp

<p>fats coming from animal sources, solid @ room temp</p>
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11

Unsaturated triglycerides

oils, coming from plant sources, liquid @ room temp

<p>oils, coming from plant sources, liquid @ room temp</p>
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12

Trans fats

unsaturated fat that behaves as saturated TAG

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13

Phospholipids

composed of fatty acids and a phospholipid head group

major membrane lipid

surfactants

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14

Surfactants

measured to know if the lungs are matured

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15

Hydrophilic head

phosphate head

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16

Hydrophobic tail

fatty acid tail

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17

Cholesterol

not readily metabolized by most cells, not a source of fuel

precursor of steroid hormones, bile acid, and vitamin D

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18

Cholesterol esters

cholesterol + fatty acid

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19

Free cholesterol

cholesterol not attached to FA

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20

Lipoprotein

bonding of molecules of fat and protein

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21

Membrane

Phospholipids and cholesterol are found on the ___________ of lipoproteins

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22

Core

Triglycerides and cholesteryl ester are found in the ___________ of lipoproteins

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23

Apolipoproteins

"identification marker" of lipoproteins

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24

Chylomicrons

VLDL

LDL

HDL

What are the 4 major types of lipoproteins?

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25

Chylomicrons

What is the largest yet least dense lipoproteins?

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26

Exogenous triglycerides

Chylomicrons transport what type of triglycerides?

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27

Very low-density lipoproteins

Pre-B lipoprotein

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28

Endogenous triglycerides

VLDL transports what type of triglycerides?

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29

Liver

This organ is also capable of producing VLDL to be transported to the peripheral tissues

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30

Low-density lipoprotein

Beta lipoprotein

Major transport protein of cholesterol and depositing them to peripheral cells

Bad cholesterol

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31

Atherosclerosis and coronary heart diseases

In LDL, plasma level is directly proportional to risk of which diseases? (2)

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32

High-density lipoprotein

smallest yet most dense

Alpha lipoprotein

Reverse cholesterol transport

Good cholesterol

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33

Size

Triglyceride levels correlates with the lipoprotein's:

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34

Density

Protein levels correlates with the lipoprotein's:

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35

Apo A-1

main distribution is in the HDL

Function: Activates LCAT with esterifies cholesterol

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36

Apo B-100

main distribution is in the VLDL and LDL

Function: Carboxy-terminal recognition signal targets LDL to the LDL receptor

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37

Apo B-48

main distribution is in the chylomicron

Function: not recognized by LDL receptor

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38

Apo C-II

main distribution is in the chylomicron and VLDL

Function: Lipoprotein activator

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39

Apo C-III

Main distribution is in VLDL and HDL

Function: Lipoprotein lipase inhibitor

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40

Apo E-4

Main distribution CM, VLDL, IDL, Remnants, and HDL

Is associated with high LDL-C, higher risk of atherosclerosis and Alzheimer's disease

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41

Apo E-2

Associated with type 3 hyperlipoproteinemia

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42

Intermediate density lipoprotein

Lipoprotein A

2 minor lipoproteins

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43

Intermediate density lipoprotein

intermediate between VLDL and LDL

increased in patients with type 3 hyperlipoproteinemia

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44

VLDL remnant

other name for IDL

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45

Lipoprotein A

interferes with normal thrombosis

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46

LDL density range

In ultracentrifugation, Lp(a) is found in the:

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47

VLDL in electrophoresis

In electrophoresis, Lp(a) migrates with:

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48

Sinking pre-Beta lipoprotein

Other name for Lp(a)

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49

Lipoprotein X

Beta-VLDL

Abnormal lipoproteins (2)

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50

Lipoprotein X

found in patients with obstructive biliary disease

abnormal lipoprotein rich in unesterified cholesterol and phospholipids

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51

Lipoprotein X

Cathodal lipoprotein (migrates to cathode in electrophoresis)

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52

Beta-VLDL

more cholesterol than TAG

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53

VLDL density range

In ultracentrifugation, B-VLDL is found in what density range?

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54

LDL in electrophoresis

B-VLDL migrates with _______ in electrophoresis

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55

Floating Beta-lipoprotein

Other name for Beta VLDL

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56

Lipoprotein lipase

responsible for hydrolysis of TAG in lipoproteins

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57

ATP-binding cassette protein

responsible for efflux of cholesterol from peripheral cells into HDL

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58

Lecithin cholesterol acyl transferase

catalyzes the esterification of cholesterol (HDL) by promoting transfer of fatty acids from lecithin to cholesterol

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59

Cholesterol ester transport protein

transfer cholesterol ester from HDL to Apo B-100 - containing lipoproteins (VLDL and LDL) in exchange for TAG

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60

Phospholipid transport protein

transfer of phospholipid to and from HDL, important for HDL growth and remodeling

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61

LDL-receptor

binds ApoE and ApoB100 and mediates endocytosis of lipoproteins

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62

Lipid absorption pathway

Exogenous pathway

Endogenous pathway

Reverse cholesterol transport pathway

4 major pathways of lipids (LEER)

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63

Lipid absorption pathway

- Lipids from diet converted into simple forms to be absorbed

- Those lipids that are absorbed are packaged into chylomicrons

What pathway?

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64

Exogenous pathway

Chylomicrons packaged from lipids absorbed during lipid absorption pathway, will first shrink into CM remnants first before being accepted by the liver

What pathway?

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65

Endogenous pathway

- Lipids produced by the liver are packaged into VLDL

- VLDL will tend to go to the peripheral tissues

- On the way to the peripheral tissues, it is attacked by LPL and becomes IDL

-IDL eventually becomes LDL

-LDL will now be transported to the peripheral tissues

What pathway?

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66

Reverse cholesterol transport pathway

- Once HDL is formed it goes back to the liver

What pathway?

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67

Chromatographic methods

Immunochemical methods

Electrophoresis

Ultracentrifugation

4 methods of lipoprotein assay (CIEU)

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68

Chromatographic methods

using gel chromatograph affinity

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69

Immunochemical methods

utilize antibodies directed towards specific apoproteins

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70

Electrophoresis

separates lipoproteins based on their electric charge followed by staining using fat stains

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71

Ultracentrifugation

THE reference method for lipoprotein assay

separates lipoproteins based on their densities

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72

Amido black B

fat stain

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73

1. HDL

2. LDL

3. VLDL

4. Chylomicrons

In ultracentrifugation, order the 4 lipoproteins from densest to least dense

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74

Chemical and enzymatic

2 methods of cholesterol determination

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75

Extraction

Saponification

Purification

Colorimetry

4 chemical methods for cholesterol determination

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76

Extraction

removal of cholesterol from proteins using organic solvents

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77

Saponification

hydrolysis of cholesterol esters to FA and free cholesterol using alcohol KOH

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78

Purification

precipitation of free cholesterol using digitonin

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79

Colorimetry

formation of colored product

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80

Colorimetry only. Protein, chromogen, and color differences are interferences.

1 step approach, what is done and what are its interferences?

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81

Extraction and colorimetry. Chromogen and color differences are the only interferences.

2 step approach, what is done and what are its interferences?

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82

Extraction, saponification, and colorimetry. Partially removed chromogen interferences.

3 step approach, what is done and what are its interferences?

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83

Extraction, Saponification, Purification, Colorimetry done. All interferences removed.

4 step approach, what is done and what are its interferences?

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84

Liebermann-Burchardt reaction

Salkowski reaction

2 colorimetry methods

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85

Liebermann-Burchardt method

acetic anhydride + sulfuric acid = cholestadienyl monosulfonic acid (GREEN)

simple method of cholesterol determination

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86

Salkowski method

Ferric iron + sulfuric acid = cholestadienyl disulfonic acid

(RED)

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87

Green

Liebermann-Burchardt end product color

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88

Red

Salkowski method end product color

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89

Cholesterol esterase

Cholesterol ester + H2O = Cholesterol + fatty acid

What enzyme catalyzes this reaction?

The first enzyme of the enzymatic method of cholesterol determination

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90

Cholesterol oxidase and Cholest-4-en-3-one

Cholesterol + O2 = Cholest-4-en-3-one + H2O2

What enzyme catalyzes this reaction and what can already be measured here?

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91

Peroxidase and Quinoneimine dye

H2O2 + Phenol + 4-aminoantipyrine = Quinoneimine dye + H2O

What is the enzyme and what is being measured here?

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92

500nm

Quinoneimine dye absorbance

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93

240nm

Cholest-4-en-3-one absorbance

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94

Polarographic method

measures amount of oxygen produced when H2O2 is reacted with peroxidase

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95

Extraction

Saponification

Oxidation

Colorimetry

4 chemical methods for TAG determination

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96

Extraction

removal of lipids from proteins using organic solvents

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97

Saponification

TAG cleaved to FA and glycerol using alcoholic KOH

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98

Oxidation

Glycerol converted to a measurable compound (formaldehyde) using sodium periodate

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99

Formaldehyde

In colorimetry method for TAG determination, what is being measured?

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100

Hantzch method

Acetyl acetone and ammonia (TAG determination)

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