Goebel AP Government Unit 2

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Institutions of government

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143 Terms

1

Institutions of government

The executive, legislature, judiciary, and bureaucracy

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2

Bicameral

A legislature consisting of two parts, or houses

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3

Constituency

the residents in the area from which an official is elected

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4

coalition building

a means of expanding an interest group's influence that involves working with other groups

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5

revenue

income

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6

Congressional committee

committee deals w/ specific topic, work of congress goes through committees

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7

Standing committee

A permanent committee established in a legislature, usually focusing on a policy area

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8

Select committee

Groups of appointed for a limited purpose and limited duration

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9

Conference committee

Special joint committee created to reconcile differences in bills passed by the House and Senate

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10

Joint committee

Committee made up of members of both house of Congress-housekeeping issues decided

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11

Speaker of the house

The presiding officer of the House of Representatives

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12

President of the Senate

Vice President

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13

President pro tempore

Serves as president of the Senate in the absence of the VP; chosen by the majority party

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14

Majority leader

The elected leader of the party with the most seat in the House of Representatives/Senate

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15

Minority leader

the legislative leader selected by the minority party as spokesperson for the opposition.

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16

Majority whip

the majority leader's assistant

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17

Minority whip

the minority leader's assistant

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18

Committee chairperson

Leader of committee

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19

Filibuster

A lengthy speech designed to delay or kill the vote on a bill; used only in the Senate

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20

Cloture

A Senate procedure through which a supermajority of 60 senators can vote to limit the amount of time spent debating a bill and cut off a filibuster.

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21

Quorum

number of members necessary to conduct a meeting

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22

Hold

a political tactic meant to slow down the legislative process in the Senate.

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23

Unanimous consent

Complete agreement

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24

Rules committee

Responsible for scheduling and managing the flow of legislation on the floor to make the process more efficient and manageable. It can also make it easier or more difficult for a bill to pass depending on the rules they create.

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25

Committee of the Whole

A committee of the House on which all representatives serve in order to consider the details of a proposal.

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26

Discharge petition

A petition signed by members of the House of Representatives to bring a bill out of committee and onto the floor for a vote.

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27

Treaty ratification

The presidential has the power, with the advice and consent of the Senate, to make treaties provided 2/3 of the senators present, concur

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28

Discretionary spending

Federal spending on programs that are controlled through the regular budget process

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29

mandatory spending

Federal spending required by law that continues without the need for annual approvals by Congress.

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30

Entitlements

Entitlement programs are government-sponsored programs providing required benefits to those meeting eligibility requirements.

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31

Social Security

any government system that provides monetary assistance to people with an inadequate or no income.

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32

Medicare

A federal program of health insurance for persons 65 years of age and older

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33

Medicaid

A health care payment program sponsored by federal & state governments

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34

Budget deficit

a financial situation that occurs when a government spends more than it takes in.

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35

Pork barrel legislation

The use of federal funding to finance localized projects, typically bringing money into a representative's district in order to please constituents and boost the representative's chances of winning reelection.

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36

Earmarks

Federal funds appropriated by Congress for use on local projects

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37

Riders

And additional provision added to a bill or other measure under the consideration by the legislature, having little connectivity with the subject of the matter of the bill.

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38

Omnibus bill

One very large bill that encompasses many separate bills.

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39

Logrolling

An arrangement in which two or more members of Congress agree in advance to support each other's bills

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40

Franking privilege

Benefit allowing members of Congress to mail letters and other materials postage-free

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41

Partisanship

Strong allegiance to one's own political party often leading to unwillingness to compromise with members of the opposing party

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42

White House Staff

The analysts and advisers to the president, often given the title "special assistant"

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43

divided government

When one party controls one or more houses in the legislative branch while the other party controls the executive branch.

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44

Ideological division

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45

Gridlock

When the government is unable to reach compromises or make policy decisions.

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46

Gerrymandering

The act of changing the boundaries of an electoral district to favor one party over another.

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47

Packing

drawing the lines so they include as many of the opposing party's voters as possible

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48

Cracking

spreading voters of one type over many districts where they will comprise minorities that are unable to influence elections

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49

Reapportionment

the process of reassigning representation based on population, after every census

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50

Census

A periodic and official count of a country's population.

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51

Redistricting

The process of adjusting electoral districts in the United States.

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52

safe seat

an office that is extremely likely to be won by a particular candidate or political party

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53

marginal seat

a parliamentary seat held by a very small majority of votes

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54

one person, one vote

a concept holding that each person's vote should be counted equally

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55

racial gerrymandering

drawing of legislative boundaries to give electoral advantages to a particular racial group

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56

Lame Duck

An elected official who continues to hold political office during the period between the election and the inauguration of their successor.

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57

Trustee Role

A member of Congress who takes into account the views of their constituents and use their own judgment to decide how to vote.

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58

Delegate Role

A member of Congress who always follows their constituents' voting preferences.

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59

partisan role

devoted to or biased in support of a party, group, or cause

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60

Politico Role

A member of Congress who acts as a delegate on issues that their constituents care about, and as a trustee on issues that their constituents don't care about.

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61

Policy agenda

The issues that attract the serious attention of public officials and other people actively involved in politics at the time.

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62

Formal presidential powers

Commander-in-chief of armed forces; pardon power (except for impeachment); treaty power; appointment power; veto power

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63

Informal Presidential Powers

The power to go public, power of persuasion, make executive agreements, issue executive orders, issue signing statements, create & use bureaucracy, personality and leadership, and make legislative proposals.

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64

Veto

Chief executive's power to reject a bill passed by a legislature

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65

Pocket veto

president's power to kill a bill, if Congress is not in session, by not signing it for 10 days

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66

Congressional Override

The power of Congress to pass legislation over a president's veto

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67

Commander in Chief

term for the president as commander of the nation's armed forces

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68

executive agreement

an agreement between the president and the leader of another country

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69

executive order

A rule issued by the president that has the force of law

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70

executive privilege

the power that allows a president to refuse to release information to Congress or a court

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71

signing statements

A released letter explaining how the president's administration plans to interpret the law

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72

The Cabinet

the leaders of the executive departments, who also act as advisers to the president

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73

Ambassadors

Highest-ranking officials representing a government in a foreign country.

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74

Chief of staff

the person who oversees the operations of all White House staff and controls access to the president

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75

press secretary

one of the president's top assistants who is in charge of media relations

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76

advice and consent power

The power of the Senate to consult and approve the presidents treaties and appointments.

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77

Good behavior clause

Judges have standard of behavior; can't be impeached for their court decisions

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78

Lame duck period

A period of time between the election and the oath of office

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79

State of the Union Address

The president's annual statement to Congress and the nation.

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80

honeymoon period

The first 100 days of a President's first term when his/her popularity is at its highest point.

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81

Bully Pulpit

a platform used to publicize and seek support for important issues

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82

Judicial Review

Allows the court to determine the constitutionality of laws

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83

precedent

(civil law) a law established by following earlier judicial decisions

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84

stare decisis

Let the decision stand; decisions are based on precedents from previous cases

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85

judicial activism

an effort by judges to take an active role in policymaking by overturning laws relatively often

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86

judicial restraint

a theory of judicial interpretation that encourages judges to limit the exercise of their own power

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87

strict constructionism

Constitution is interpreted in a way that limits the powers of the federal government

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88

loose constructionism

broad interpretation of the Constitution

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89

Jurisdiction

the official power to make legal decisions and judgments.

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90

original jurisdiction

the power of a court to hear a case first, before any other court

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91

appellate jurisdiction

Authority of court to review a decision of a lower court or administrative agency.

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92

concurrent jurisdiction

authority for both state and federal courts to hear and decide cases

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93

federal bureaucracy

the collective agencies and employees of the executive branch

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94

Executive Departments

often called the cabinet departments, they are the traditional units of federal administration

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95

Department of State

Cabinet-level agency in charge of foreign policy & international affairs.

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96

Department of treasury

collects federal taxes through IRS, prints money and stamps, makes coins, deals w/nation's finances

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97

Department of Defense

Manages the armed forces

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98

Department of Justice

responsible for the enforcement of the law and administration of justice,

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99

Department of Homeland Security

Cabinet department created after the 9/11 terrorist attacks to coordinate domestic security efforts

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100

Department of Transportation

Manages the nations highways, railroads, airlines, and sea traffic

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