Police Explorers Vocab

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First police agency to_____? (Historical and notable milestones of the occupation)

1 / 124

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Law

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125 Terms

1

First police agency to_____? (Historical and notable milestones of the occupation)

be created was in Egypt?

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2

Robert Peel

instituted modern law enforcement (12 principles)

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3

August Vollmer

standardized policing. Instituted university training. believed police should stay out of politics.

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4

Branches of government

Legislative, Executive, and Judicial

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5

checks and balances

a system of dividing power among different branches of government to prevent tyranny.

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6

1st Amendment

Freedom of Religion, Speech, Press, Assembly, and Petition

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7

4th Amendment

Protection against Unreasonable Search and Seizure

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8

5th Amendment

The Right to Remain Silent/Double Jeopardy, right to due process

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9

6th Amendment

The right to a Speedy Trial by jury, representation by an attorney for an accused person

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10

8th Amendment

No cruel or unusual punishment

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11

10th Amendment

Powers Reserved to the States

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12

Knapp Commision (1972)

was a five-member panel initially formed in April 1970 by Mayor John V. Lindsay to investigate corruption within the New York City Police Department.

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13

English Common Law

The centuries-old body of legal rules and procedures that protected the lives and property of the British monarch's subjects.

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14

Code of Hammurabi

A collection of 282 laws. One of the first (but not THE first) examples of written law in the ancient world. These 282 case laws include economic provisions (prices, tariffs, trade, and commerce), family law (marriage and divorce), as well as criminal law (assault, theft) and civil law (slavery, debt).

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15

Napoleonic Code

This was the civil code put out by Napoleon that granted equality of all male citizens before the law and granted absolute security of wealth and private property. Napoleon also secured this by creating the Bank of France which loyally served the interests of both the state and the financial oligarchy

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16

Social Conflict Theory

A school of criminology that views criminal behavior as the result of class conflict. Argues that individuals and groups (social classes) within society interact on the basis of conflict rather than consensus.

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17

Choice Theory

Suggests that individuals choose to engage in criminal behavior based on their calculation of potential rewards and risks associated with such behavior.

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18

Biological Theory

Biological explanations of crime assume that some people are 'born criminals', who are physiologically distinct from non-criminals.

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19

Social Disorganization Theory

The explanation of variations in criminal offending and delinquency, across both time and space, as a product of institutional disintegration.

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20

Vior dire examination

"voir dire," which is Latin for "to speak the truth." In voir dire, the judge and attorneys for both sides ask potential jurors questions to determine if they are competent and suitable to serve in the case.

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21

Peremptory Challenges

the exclusion of a potential juror without the need for any reason or explanation

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22

Nolo contendere

[Latin, I will not contest it.] A plea in a criminal case by which the defendant answers the charges made in the indictment by declining to dispute or admit the fact of his or her guilt.

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23

Plea Bargaining

allows criminal justice personnel to individualize punishments and make them less severe.

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24

Insanity

also known as the mental disorder defense, is an affirmative defense by excuse in a criminal case, arguing that the defendant is not responsible for their actions due to an episodic psychiatric disease at the time of the criminal act.

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Entrapment

The act of government agents or officials that induces a person to commit a crime he or she is not previously disposed to commit.

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Alibi

a defense raised by the accused as proof that they could not have committed the crime because they were in some other place at the time the alleged offense was committed.

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Self Defense

may be used to argue that the defendant's use of violence or deadly force were necessary to protect himself or others from harm.

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Diminished mental capacity

a legal defense used by a defendant to argue that, while he admits to having broken the law, he should not be held fully criminally liable due to his "diminished" mental state at the time.

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Infancy

can be used to negate the element of intent to commit a crime

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30

Beyond a reasonable doubt

legal burden of proof required to affirm a conviction in a criminal case.

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31

Reasonable Suspicion

any information that points to illegal activity and may include rumor, tips, and anonymous telephone calls. lower legal standard than probable cause

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32

Probable Cause

a requirement found in the Fourth Amendment that must usually be met before police make an arrest, conduct a search, or receive a warrant

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33

Felony

most serious offense in the criminal justice system

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34

Robbery

aggravated form of theft that involves violence or the threat of violence against a victim in his presence

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35

Misdemeanor

any "lesser" criminal act in some common law legal systems

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36

Burglary

crime under both the common law and the model penal code

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Embezzlement

fraudulent appropriation of property by a person to whom such property has been entrusted, or into whose hands it has lawfully come.

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38

Murder

unlawful killing of another human being without justification or excuse

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Manslaughter

crime of killing a person without the intent, forethought, or reckless disregard for life that defines murder

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40

Petty Theft

misdemeanor crime defined by individual states

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41

Terry v. Ohio

stop and frisk based on reasonable suspicion

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42

Graham v. Connor

reasonableness of a particular use of force must be judged from the perspective of how a reasonable officer on the scene would respond, rather than from the 20/20 perspective of hindsight.

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43

Mapp v. Ohio

Established the exclusionary rule was applicable to the states (evidence seized illegally cannot be used in court)

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44

Tennessee v. Garner

Deadly force may not be used against an unarmed and fleeing suspect unless necessary to prevent the escape and unless the officer has probable cause to believe that the suspect poses a significant threat of death or serious injury to the officers or others.

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45

Miranda v. Arizona

The accused must be notified of their rights before being questioned by the police

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46

Civil v. Criminal

The two main types of law are

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47

Sentencing

A hearing to determine consequences for a crime

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48

Opening Statements

The attorneys' statements to the jury at the beginning of the trial.

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49

Defense's case

presented by a lawyer in a trial for the person who has been accused of a crime

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50

Closing Arguments

arguments made by each side's attorney after the cases for the plaintiff and defendant have been presented

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Jury Deliberations

The action of a jury in determining the guilt or innocence, or the sentence, of a defendant.

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Prosecution's case

prosecution present its side of the case (witnesses and evidence) the defense may cross-examine

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53

Tort

a wrongful act or an infringement of a right (other than under contract) leading to civil legal liability.

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54

Juvenile-only offenses

a "status offense" involves conduct that would not be a crime if it were committed by an adult

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55

Juvenile rights

system of laws, policies, and procedures intended to regulate the processing and treatment of nonadult offenders for violations of law and to provide legal remedies that protect their interests in situations of conflict or neglect.

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56

Parole

to grant a prisoner an early release from prison, with certain restrictions

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57

Furlough

a temporary leave of absence from military duty

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58

Probation

the release of an offender from detention, subject to a period of good behavior under supervision

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59

Trustee

A legislator who acts according to her or his conscience and the broad interests of the entire society.

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60

Prisoner rights

Overview Federal and state laws govern the establishment and administration of prisons as well as the rights of the inmates. Although prisoners do not have full constitutional rights, they are protected by the Eighth Amendment 's prohibition against cruel and unusual punishment.

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Adult v. Juvenile terms

Adult defendants are charged with complaints and convicted, while juveniles are petitioned and considered adjudicated delinquents when punished.

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Incapacitation

prevents convicted criminals from committing future crimes by locking them up, or more rarely, by altering them surgically or executing them

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63

Deterrence

An effort to preserve the status quo through the threat of force

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64

Restorative justice

punishment designed to repair the damage done to the victim and community by an offender's criminal act

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65

Rehabilitation

process of changing or reforming a criminal through socialization

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66

Death penalty exclusions

Eighth Amendment prohibits the death penalty for felony murder if the defendant was only a minor participant and didn't kill, attempt to kill, or intend that a killing or use of lethal force occur.

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67

Local jail v. state prisons

Jails are normally operated by a local government, usually a county government, and are used to hold people pending trial, or for shorter sentences of incarceration following a criminal conviction. Prisons are normally operated by a state's department of corrections or, for federal crimes, the Federal Bureau of Prisons.

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68

Legal Searches Parameters

search of an arrested persons body, things within the officers plain view, the person is about to or suspiciously about to commit a crime an officer can stop and search them, police may search an open field, person has no expectation of privacy in an open field

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69

Exigent Circumstances

when there is an immediate threat to public safety or the risk that evidence will be destroyed, officers may search, arrest, or question suspects without obtaining a warrant or following other usual rules of criminal procedure

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70

Detention v. arrest

occurs when a law enforcement officer restricts a person's freedom to leave

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71

When search warrants are not required v. when they are

If the police see an illegal act occurring outside of your home, they may perform a search and seize evidence from your home without a search warrant. The police must still have probable cause, however, that the items are indeed illegal. most police searches require a search warrant based on probable cause.

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Coercement

when officers of the law exert undue pressure to get an individual suspect to admit their involvement in a crime

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Exclusionary rule

improperly gathered evidence may not be introduced in a criminal trial

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74

inevitable discovery

exception to the exclusionary rule that allows the use of illegally obtained evidence at trial if the court determines that the evidence would eventually have been found by legal means

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75

Judicial Review

Allows the court to determine the constitutionality of laws

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76

consent

permission for something to happen or agreement to do something.

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77

stop and frisk

to "pat down" or search the outer clothing of someone whom the police believe is acting suspiciously

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78

order of a body search

a search, typically conducted by customs officials or the police, of a person's body and clothing for illicit weapons, drugs, or other articles. Order: head/hair/headwear, collar, roll the fabric to check for sewn-in items, arms, front of torso and waist, right groin, leg, ankle, foot, inside of shoes, left groin, leg, ankle, and foot.

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79

Reasonable suspicion vs. probable cause

a general and reasonable suspicion is a general and reasonable belief that a crime is in progress or has occurred whereas a probable cause is a reasonable belief that a particular person has committed a specific crime.

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80

DUI/DWI probable cause for arrest

Officers look for such facts after developing a suspicion that a motorist has been driving under the influence.

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81

Consensual encounter

Occurs when an officer comes into voluntary contact with a citizen under circumstances in which a reasonable person would feel free to disregard the police and go about his or her business.

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82

Internal affairs

the branch of the police department that investigates charges of corruption or misconduct on the part of police officers

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83

Unethical v. Illegal

'Unethical' defines as something that is morally wrong, whilst something being 'illegal' means it is against the law.

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84

Purpose of an accident investigation

determine the cause or causes of an accident, prevent similar accidents in the future, or in preparation for a legal battle in order to determine who was at fault.

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85

Own recognizance

the legal responsibility for one's own behavior, as in an arrested suspect being released without bail

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86

First priority of officer at accident scene

(1) determine if the victim is alive or dead; (2) apprehend the perpetrator, if possible or give the appropriate notification if the perpetrator is escaping; and (3) safeguard the scene and detain witnesses and suspects.

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First priority of officer responding to a call

Introduce yourself to victims by name and title. Briefly explain your role and purpose. Reassure victims of their safety and your concern by paying close attention to your own words, posture, mannerisms, and tone of voice. Ask victims to tell you in just a sentence or two what happened. Ask if they have any physical injuries. Take care of their medical needs first. Offer to contact a family member, friend, or crisis counselor for victims.Ensure privacy during your interview. Provide a "safety net" for victims before leaving them. Give victim's鈥攊n writing鈥攜our name and information on how to reach you

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88

Private property traffic law enforcement

if a land owner (apartment, condo, shopping center, etc) has a written agreement with law enforcement, then the cops may issue traffic citations on their private property. This ruling, of course, does not apply to criminal matters.

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89

Driving reaction times

???

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90

Reckless driving

driving by anyone who fails to exercise reasonable care, unreasonably interferes with the use of a public road by others, or deliberately disregards his or her own safety or that of others

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91

Danger areas in traffic stops

Stay away from intersections, hillcrests and areas that offer escape routes to the suspect(s). Try to pick an area that has good visibility and lighting with a safe backdrop for shooting if necessary. Stay away from hostile environments where other individuals may attempt to interfere in the stop.

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92

Horizontal Gaze Nystagmus

Involuntary jerking of the eyes occurring add the eyes gaze to the side. (Field Sobriety Test)

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93

walk and turn

Heel to toe in a straight line, following directions

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94

evidence

the available body of facts or information indicating whether a belief or proposition is true or valid/proof

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95

chain of custody

the documented and unbroken transfer of evidence

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96

modus operandi

manner of working; way of working

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97

police reports in general

integral components of the criminal justice system. These reports facilitate criminal prosecution, provide judges with a third-party view of circumstances pertaining to court cases, and serve as vital pieces of documentation that help victims of criminal injury recover damages and find justice.

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98

affidavit

written statement made under oath

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99

complaint

a formal notice that a lawsuit is being brought

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100

indictment

the act of accusing; a formal accusation

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