Lab 1 Practical

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1

anatomical position

standing feet slightly apart, toes forward, arms toward the ground with palms facing forward

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Superior

towards the upper part of the body

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Inferior

towards the lower part of the body

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anterior (ventral)

towards the front of the body

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Posterior (dorsal)

towards the back of the body

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Medial

towards the midline of the body

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Lateral

away from the midline of the body

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Proximal

close to the body’s attachment point

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Distal

farther away from body’s attachment points

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10

Superficial

towards the body surface

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11

deep

away from the body surface

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Plane

flat surface examined in many anatomical studies

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sagittal plane

vertical plane that divided the body into right and left parts

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Mid-sagittal plane

vertical plane at body’s midline

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frontal plane

vertical plane that dived the body into ventral and dorsal parts

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Transverse plane (cross section)

horizontal plane that divided the body into superior and inferior parts

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17
<p>what number is the dorsal body cavity </p>

what number is the dorsal body cavity

2

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18
<p>what number is the cranial cavity </p>

what number is the cranial cavity

1

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19
<p>what number is the vertebral cavity </p>

what number is the vertebral cavity

3

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20
<p>what number is the thoracic cavity </p>

what number is the thoracic cavity

4

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21
<p>what number is the abdominal cavity </p>

what number is the abdominal cavity

6

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22
<p>what number is the pelvic cavity </p>

what number is the pelvic cavity

7

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23
<p>what number is the diaphragm</p>

what number is the diaphragm

5

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<p><span style="font-family: Arial; color: black">right upper quadrant organs  (A)</span></p>

right upper quadrant organs (A)

liver
pancreas
gallbladder
duodenum
transverse colon
right adrenal gland
right kidney

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<p>left upper quadrant organs (B)</p>

left upper quadrant organs (B)

liver
stomach
spleen
pancreas
transverse colon
left adrenal gland
left kidney

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<p>left lower quad organs (D)</p>

left lower quad organs (D)

small intestine
descending colon
urinary bladder
part of left kidney
left ureter
left ovary and uterine tube
left spermatic cord
signmoid colon

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<p>Right lower quad (C)</p>

Right lower quad (C)

small intestine
ascending colon
appendix
urinary bladder
part of right kidney
right ureter
right ovary and uterine tube
right spermatic cord

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28
<p>what number is right hypochondriac region </p>

what number is right hypochondriac region

1

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29
<p>what number is epigastric region </p>

what number is epigastric region

2

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<p>what number is left hypochondriac region </p>

what number is left hypochondriac region

3

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<p>what number is right lumbar region </p>

what number is right lumbar region

4

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32
<p>what number is umbilical region </p>

what number is umbilical region

5

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33
<p>what number is left lumbar region </p>

what number is left lumbar region

6

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<p>what number is right iliac region </p>

what number is right iliac region

7

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35
<p>what number is hypogastric region </p>

what number is hypogastric region

8

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<p>what number is left iliac region</p>

what number is left iliac region

9

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37

histology

the study of tissue structure and function

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38

nervous tissue

internal communication

brain

spinal cord

nerves

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39

muscle tissue

contracts to cause movement

muscles attached to the bone

muscles of the heart

muscle walls of hollow organs

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40

epithelial tissue

sheets of cells that covers a body surface or lines a body cavity

lining of digestive system

glans

skin surface

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41

connective tissue

supports protects bind to other tissues

bones

tendons

fat and other padding tissue

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42
<p>apical surface </p>

apical surface

Not attached to surrounding tissue

Exposed to the external environment or cavity of internal organ

May possess cilia or microvilli

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<p>basal surface</p>

basal surface

Attached to the basement membrane

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44

Simple squamous epithelia description

one layer of squamous cells; the thinnest

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Simple squamous epithelia key location

alveoli

lining of blood vessels

glomeruli (Kidneys)

serosa of the ventral body cavity

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Simple squamous epithelia main functions

supports rapid diffusion

filtration

secretion

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47

Simple squamous epithelia picture

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Simple cuboidal epithelia description

one layer of cuboidal cells

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Simple cuboidal epithelia key locations

kidney tubes

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Simple cuboidal epithelia main functions

absorption and secretion

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51

Simple cuboidal epithelia picture

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Simple columnar epithelia description

one layer of columnar cells

may have cilia or microvilli

some goblet cells

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Simple columnar epithelia key locations

GI tract (stomach to rectum)

gallbladder

fallopian tubes (cilia)

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54

Simple columnar epithelia main functions

absorption

secretion

propel substances along apical surface

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Simple columnar epithelia picture

knowt flashcard image
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Pseudostratified columnar epithelia description

will appear to have multiple layers; but actually has one

cells have varying heights

can have cilia or goblet cells

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Pseudostratified columnar epithelia key locations

nasal cavity

pharynx

larynx

trachea

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Pseudostratified columnar epithelia main functions

secretion

propel mucus (cilia) towards throat

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Pseudostratified columnar epithelia picture

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60

Stratified squamous epithelia, non-keratinized picture

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Stratified squamous epithelia, non-keratinized description

many layers of cells

cells on apical surface are squamous shaped

nuclei are found in all layers

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Stratified squamous epithelia, non-keratinized key locations

oral cavity

esophagus

anus

vagina

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Stratified squamous epithelia, non-keratinized main functions

protecting connective tissue from abrasive forces

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Stratified squamous epithelia, keratinized picture

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Stratified squamous epithelia, keratinized description

many layers of cells

apical layer has squamous shaped cells

no nuclei in layers near apical surface

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Stratified squamous epithelia, keratinized key locations

epidermis of the skin

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Stratified squamous epithelia, keratinized main functions

protecting dermis forces abrasive forces

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Transitional epithelia picture

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Transitional epithelia description

stratified number of layers depends on the degree of stretch

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Transitional epithelia key locations

ureters

urinary bladder

urethra

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71

Transitional epithelia main function

designed to stretch

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72

Nervous Tissue picture

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Nervous Tissue description

Neurons are branching cells; cell processes that may be quite long extend from the nucleus-containing cell body; also contributing to nervous tissue are various types of glial cells.

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Nervous Tissue function

Neurons transmit electrical signals from sensory receptors and to effectors (muscles and glands); glial cells support and protect neurons.

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75

Nervous Tissue description location

brain, spinal cord, nerves

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76

Areolar Connective Tissue structural features

RC- fibroblast

OC- Immune Cells

ECM - Abundant ground substance; all 3 fibers

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Areolar Connective Tissue key functions

anchors epithelial tissue

wrap around organs to form a cushion

fight infection

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Areolar Connective Tissue main location

deep to epithelial tissue

surrounding organs

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Areolar Connective Tissue picture

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80

Adipose Tissue picture

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Adipose Tissue structural features

rc- fibroblast

oc- adipose cell (most abundant)

ecm- sparce; same comp as areolar

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82

Adipose Tissue key functions

stores fat

insulates

cushions

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83

Adipose Tissue main locations

subcutaneous tissue

wall of abdominopelvic cavity

eyes, kidneys, breasts

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84

Reticular Connective Tissue picture

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85

Reticular Connective Tissue structural features

rc- fibroblast

oc- immune cells

ecm- abundant reticular fibers

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86

Reticular Connective Tissue key functions

form soft skeleton of lymphoid organs

support the development of blood; immune cells

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87

Reticular Connective Tissue main locations

bone marrow

spleen

lymph nodes

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88

Dense Regular Connective Tissue picture

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Dense Regular Connective Tissue structural features

rc- fibroblast

ecm- filled with collagen fibers arranged in parallel

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90

Dense Regular Connective Tissue key functions

forms attachments

→ bone to bone

→ muscle to bone

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91

Dense Regular Connective Tissue main locations

bone to bone → ligaments

muscle to bone → tendons

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Dense Irregular Connective Tissue picture

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Dense Irregular Connective Tissue structural features

rc- fibroblast

ecm- abundant collagen fibers; not in parallel; some elastic fibers

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Dense Irregular Connective Tissue key functions

provide great tensile strength with some flexibility

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95

Dense Irregular Connective Tissue main locations

dermis

joint capsules

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Elastic Connective Tissue picture

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Elastic Connective Tissue structural features

rc- fibroblast

ecm- abundant elastic fibers in parallel

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Elastic Connective Tissue key functions

help maintain blood

helps expire air

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99

Elastic Connective Tissue main locations

walls of large arteries (aorta)

walls of lungs

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Hyaline Cartilage picture

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