Biotechnology

studied byStudied by 11 people
5.0(1)
get a hint
hint

selective breeding

1 / 27

Tags and Description

Biology

28 Terms

1

selective breeding

choosing parents with specific traits to breed together and produce offspring with more desirable traits. humans use this to take advantage of naturally occurring genetic variation. (518)

New cards
2

Biotechnology

the application of a technological process, invention, or method to living organisms.

New cards
3

Hybridization

the crossing of two dissimilar individuals to bring together the best of both organisms.

New cards
4

Inbreeding

A breeding method where closely related individuals are mated, causing an increase in homozygosity, which can lead to expression of deleterious recessive traits. It does ensure that characteristics that makes each breed unique are preserved.

New cards
5

Bacterial mutations

breeders can select for certain mutations that result in useful characteristics, this is especially useful in bacteria

New cards
6

Polyploid Plants

Certain drugs can prevent the separation of chromosomes and can produce cells that have many excess chromosomes. This is fatal in animals but useful in plants.

New cards
7

Restriction Enzymes

Enzymes that help cut DNA into fragments of manageable size during bacterial transformation.

New cards
8

PCR

  1. DNA is heated and separated

  2. The mixture cools and primers (short stranded complementary DNA) gets added producing two complementary strands

  3. The process repeats

New cards
9

Recombinant DNA:

DNA that has been formed artificially by combining constituents from different organisms

New cards
10

Plasmids

genetic structures in a cell that can replicate independently of the chromosomes, typically a circular DNA strand in the cytoplasm of a bacterium and protozoan.

New cards
11

Genetic Marker

makes it possible to distinguish bacteria that carry the plasmid from those that don’t

New cards
12

CRISPR (acronym)

clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats

New cards
13

Clones

a population of genetically identical cells produced from a single cell

New cards
14

transgenic

an organism or cell whose genome has been altered by the introduction of one or more foreign DNA sequences from another species by artificial means.

New cards
15

Cas9

enzyme that cuts DNA during Crispr

New cards
16

gRNA

RNA that guides Cas9 to certain sequences during Crispr.

New cards
17

Bacterial Transformation

Scientists can take DNA molecules from any source and insert them into living cells

New cards
18

Step One Bacterial Transformation

uses restriction enzymes like DNA ligase to split DNA

New cards
19

Step Two Bacterial Transformation

The remaining half strand is called a sticky end

New cards
20

Step Three Bacterial Transformations

the sticky ends combine, creating recombinant DNA

New cards
21

Yeasts and Plasmids

Plasmids can be found in yeast, and yeast can be transformed and artificial chromosomes can be constructed.

New cards
22

CRIPSPR Step 1

Guide RNA leads Cas9 to DNA sequence

New cards
23

CRISPR Step 2

Cas9 cuts it

New cards
24

CRISPR Step 3

Enzymes in the cell try to repair the broken ends by inserting random bases, which destroys the function of the gene

New cards
25

CRISPR Step 4

Scientists insert strands of DNA matching those at the break, and the cell uses that repair mechanism instead.

New cards
26

Transgenic Plants

plants can be transformed using agrobacterium, a tumor producing bacteria that gets disabled and replaced with recombinant DNA, which is used transform plant cells

New cards
27

Transgenic animals

egg cells are large enough for DNA to be injected into the nucleus, and enzymes that are responsible for DNA repair help insert the foreign DNA into the cell.

New cards
28

Gene Therapy

the changing of a gene to treat a disease

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 182 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 86 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 14 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 43 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
note Note
studied byStudied by 8 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
note Note
studied byStudied by 23 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 22 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 120 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(3)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard141 terms
studied byStudied by 61 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard71 terms
studied byStudied by 383 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard20 terms
studied byStudied by 4 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard61 terms
studied byStudied by 100 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard76 terms
studied byStudied by 17 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard60 terms
studied byStudied by 5 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard21 terms
studied byStudied by 4 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard45 terms
studied byStudied by 12 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)