Topic 2 - Animal Nutrition (copy)

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Chemical elements in carbohydrates:

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Biology

10th

125 Terms

1

Chemical elements in carbohydrates:

C, H, O

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2

Chemical elements in fats:

C, H, O

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3

Chemical elements in proteins:

C,H, N, O

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4

What are Starch and Glycogen broken down into?

glucose

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5

What is cellulose broken down into?

glucose

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6

What are proteins broken down into?

amino acids

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7

What are lipids broken down into?

fatty acids and glycerol

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8

Test for starch:

iodine

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9

Positive result for starch:

orange to blue black

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10

Test for fats:

ethanol and distilled water

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11

Positive result for fats:

clear to cloudy mixture

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12

Test for protein:

biurets, copper sulphate and sodium hydroxide

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13

Positive result for protein:

blue to purple

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14

Test for sugar:

benedicts, boiling water bath

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15

Positive result for sugar:

blue to brick red

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16

Test for vitamin C:

DCPIP

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17

Positive result for vitamin C:

blue to colourless

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18

What are carbohydrates broken down into?

starch, glycogen, cellulose, sucrose

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19

One glycerol is joined to…

three fatty acids

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20

Protein is made up of:

long chains of amino acids

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21

DNA structure:

two strands coiled together to form a double helix

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22

A is joined to what in DNA?

T

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23

C is joined to what in DNA?

G

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24

What is a balanced diet?

a diet that contains all of the required nutrients in suitable proportions

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25

Carbohydrates role:

provide energy

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26

Fats role:

store energy for insulation

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27

Proteins role:

growth and repair of tissues

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28

Fibre role:

provide roughage to help to keep the food moving through the digestive system

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29

Water role:

an important solvent that keeps the whole body hydrated

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30

Vitamins role:

needed in small quantities to maintain health

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31

Minerals role:

needed in small quantities to maintain health

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32

Obesity cause:

unhealthy eating patterns, unhealthy exercise levels

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33

Effect of Obesity:

cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure

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34

Coronary heart disease cause:

the build up of fatty deposits on the walls of the arteries around the heart, physical inactivity, overweight

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35

Effect of Coronary heart disease:

chest pain, shortness of breath, heart attack

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36

Scurvy cause:

lack of vitamin c, malnourishment

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37

Effect of scurvy:

weakness, gum disease, skin haemorrhages

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38

Rickets cause:

lack of vitamin d or calcium

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39

Effect of Rickets:

bone pain, poor growth, soft and weak bones

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40

Anaemia cause:

iron deficiency, vitamin B12 deficiency

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41

Effect of Anaemia:

fatigue, weakness, pale and yellowish skin, chest pain

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42

Kwashiorkor cause:

deficiency of proteins or other vitamins and minerals

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43

Effect of Kwashiorkor:

enlarged stomach, loss of muscle mass

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44

Marasmus cause:

overall lack of calories

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45

Effect of Marasmus:

low body weight, muscle wasting, fatigue

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46

Ingestion:

the taking of substances e.g. food and drink into the body through the mouth.

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47

Mechanical digestion:

the breakdown of food into smaller pieces without chemical change to the food molecules

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48

Chemical digestion:

the breakdown of large insoluble molecules into small soluble molecules

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49

Absorption:

the movement of small food molecules and ions through the wall of the intestine into the blood

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50

Assimilation:

the movement of digested food molecules into the cells of the body where they are used, becoming part of the cells

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51

Egestion:

the passing out of food that has not been digested or absorbed as faeces through the anus

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52

Diarrhoea:

the loss of watery faeces

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53

Treatment for Diarrhoea:

oral rehydration therapy

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54

Oral rehydration therapy:

when a solution of salt and glucose is given to treat someone with cholera or another disease

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55

Chloera:

a water borne disease caused by bacteria

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56

Chloera symptoms:

diahorrea

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57

Environment chloera occurs in:

lack of sanitation, unclean water, contaminated food

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58

Chloera Bacterium:

produces a toxin that cause secretion of chloride ions into the small intestine, causing osmotic movement of water into the gut, causing diarrhoea, dehydration and loss of salts from blood

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59

Carbohydrates source:

bread, pasta, rice

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60

Fats source:

butter, oil, cheese

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61

Protein source:

eggs, fish, meat

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62

Vitamin C source:

citrus fruits, black currents, cabbage

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63

Vitamin C function:

maintain healthy skin and gums

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64

Vitamin D source:

milk, cheese, egg yolk

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65

Vitamin D function:

maintains hard bones, helps absorb calcium from small intestine

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66

Calcium source:

milk, cheese, fish

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67

Calcium function:

healthy teeth and bones, normal blood clotting

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68

Iron source:

red meat, liver, kidney

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69

Iron function:

forms haemoglobin in red blood cells

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70

Fibre source:

vegetables, fruit, wholemeal bread

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71

Fibre function:

adds bulk to the undigested food in the intestines, maintaining peristalsis

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72

Water source:

drinks, fruits, vegetables

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73

Alimentary canal:

the long muscular tube which runs from the mouth to the anus

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74

What is the digestive system made up of?

the alimentary canal and associated organs

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75

What are the 2 main functions of the digestive system:

digestion and absorption

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76

Mouth function:

chew and break down food into small pieces

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77

Enzyme found in the mouth:

amylase

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78

Where does digestion and ingestion occur?

the mouth

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79

Salivary glands function:

helps swallow food

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80

Enzyme found in Salivary glands:

amylase

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81

Oesophogus function:

pushes a ball of food (bolus) down the throat to stomach through muscular contractions (peristalsis)

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82

Stomach function:

stomach muscles churn and break down the food

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83

Enzyme found in the stomach:

pepsin

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84

Small intestine function:

made from microscopic villi that increase the surface area so nutrients can be absorbed quickly into the bloodstream

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85

Enzymes found in the small intestine:

trypsin, lipase, carbohydrase

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86

Where does the absorption of food occur?

small intestine

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87

Pancreas function:

produces digestive enzymes and release them into the small intestine

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88

Enzymes found in the pancreas:

protease, lipase, carbohydrase

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89

Liver function:

produces bile which increases pH and emulsifies fats

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90

Where does the assimilation of food occur:

liver

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91

Gall bladder function:

stores excess bile

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92

Large intestine function:

indigestible food and water enters and water is absorbed back into the body

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93

Rectum/anus function:

faeces are stored and egested

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94

Where does the egestion of food occur?

rectum/anus

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95

What are incisors used for?

cutting and biting off food

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96

How many incisors does an average adult have?

8

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97

How many canines does an average adult have?

4

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98

What are premolars used for?

crushing and grinding soft food

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99

How many premolars does an average adult have?

8

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100

How many molars does an average adult have?

12

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