Earth Life Term Test

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120 Terms

1

cycle

What makes earth DYNAMIC?

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GEOSPHERE

refers to the solid parts of the Earth

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CRUST

  • outermost layer & thinnest layer (5-70 km thick); where we live

  • Surface temperature

  • 1% of Earth’s mass

  • where lithosphere is located

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loose rocks and soil

composition of the crust

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Continental Crust

One of the types of crust

dry land, granite, thicker, less dense

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Oceanic Crust

One of the types of crust

  • ocean floor, basalt, thinner, more dense

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UPPER MANTLE

  • thickest layer (2900 km thick); 66% of earth’s mass

  • 1600-4000 F

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Flowing molten rock

Composition of upper mantle

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UPPER MANTLE

Where lithosphere and asthenosphere is located

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LITHOSPHERE

  • solid outer section of Earth; where the plates; tectonic plates; rigid

  • entire earth’s crust and the rigid upper mantle

  • it is divided into a number of huge tectonic plates that move in relation to one another

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ASTHENOSPHERE

  • jelly (cuz its hot) = mantle is unstable

  • composed of solid flowing rock

  • layer on which pieces of lithosphere move on top (solid rock that flows

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BOTTOM MANTLE

  • strong, lower part of the mantle

  • layer between asthenosphere and core

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CORE

  • HOT! 4000-8000F

  • Very dense (solid); high pressure

  • 33% of Earth’s mass

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Iron and Nickel

composition of core

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Outer core

Part of core

liquid iron and nickel that’s spinning

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Inner core

Part of core

  • solid iron and nickel

  • solid because of all the pressure of the rest of the Earth surrounding it.

  • where gravitational and magnetic force comes from

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increases

As you get deeper inside the Earth, temperature and pressure ___

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seismic waves

  • when an earthquake happens, vibrations called ___ travel through the earth at different speeds as the waves hit different layers

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seismograph

measured seismic waves

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p-wave

type of wave (side to side; horizontal)

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s-wave

type of wave (up and down; vertical; makes a sound)

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PLATE TECTONICS

  • a theory explaining the structure of the earth's crust and many associated phenomena (volcanic eruption, earthquake, tsunamis) as resulting from the interaction of rigid lithospheric plates that move slowly over the underlying mantle.

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PLATE TECTONICS

  • NO TECTONIC PLATES = explosion

  • PLATES are continually moving, colliding, or pulling apart relative to each other.

  • Continents are in the continental plates and oceanic plates make up much of the sea floor.

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CONVECTION CURRENT

rotation of magma around the core, asthenosphere

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PLATE TECTONIC THEORY

proposes that the lithosphere is divided into major plates and smaller plates resting upon the lower soft layer called asthenosphere

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Convergent

  • against; forms mountains, volcanoes, mountain ranges)

  • is a boundary where two tectonic plates are moving toward each other another

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Divergent

  • away; forms oceans

  • is a boundary where two tectonic plates are moving away from one another.

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Transform

  • slides; forms plains

  • is a boundary where two tectonic plates are sliding with one another.

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BOUNDARY

  • The border between tectonic plates ; space

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FAULT

rocks itself

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CONTINENTAL DRIFT THEORY

  • Alfred Wegener

  • Pangaea → Laurasia and Gondwana → Modern World

  • Earth consists of 71% water and 29% land

  • EVIDENCES: continents fitting together like a puzzle, scattering ancient fossils, rocks, mountain ranges, and the old climatic zones' locations.

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ATMOSPHERE

78% nitrogen (from fossils), 21% oxygen, 1% other gasses

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TROPOSPHERE

  • lightning, and thunderstorm (cuz of the temperature difference); COLD

  • Contains about 80% of the total mass of atmosphere

  • All weather-associated cloud types are found in this layer

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STRATOSPHERE

  • where the ozone layer is located (HOT); where airplanes fly

  • It protects life on Earth by absorbing the ultraviolet radiation (O3) ozone

  • Layer where jet planes fly

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MESOSPHERE

  • meteoroids

  • The coldest region in the atmosphere

  • This layer protects Earth from meteoroids (they burn in this layer)

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IONOSPHERE

  • portion of the thermosphere between 80 and 550 km above the Earth.

  • Layer consisting of highly-ionized gas.

  • Used in sending radio waves to great distances

  • Kennelly- Heaviside layer

    • layer of ionosphere that reflects radio waves

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THERMOSPHERE

  • where satellites are found (following the movement of the earth); Diwata 2 - PH satellite

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AURORAS

  • The bright dancing lights of the __ are actually collisions between electrically charged particles from the sun that enter the earth's atmosphere.

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Aurora borealis

The lights are seen above the magnetic poles of the northern hemispheres.

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Aurora australis

The lights are seen above the magnetic poles of the southern hemispheres.

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EXOSPHERE

  • outside, near the moon; rockets

  • Orbiting satellites

  • Low density elements (H and He)

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HYDROSPHERE

includes water that is on the surface of the planet, underground, and in the air.

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OCEAN

  • bigger, no land forms

  • body of saltwater with almost no boundaries and limitless volume

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SEA

part of the ocean that is partially surrounding a landform

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ISLAND SEA

  • smallest

  • totally surrounds a landform

  • EX. Tingloy

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3.5

Saltwater or seawater has an average salinity of

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SALINITY

refers to the proportion of dissolved salts to pure water, expressed in parts per thousands.

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sulfate and rocks

  • WHERE DOES THE SALT COME FROM?

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VOLCANIC OUTGASSING

  • During volcanic eruptions, large quantities of water and gasses are emitted to Earth’s surface.

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3

Only _% of water on the surface is fresh

  • FRESHWATER: 69% resides in glaciers, 30% underground, and less than 1% is located in lakes, rivers, and swamps (rotating water)

  • islands in the PH increased cuz of earthquakes (7640 islands)

    • imbalance → climate change

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97

  • The remaining _% resides in the ocean.

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Coastal zone

region where the sea bottom is exposed during the low tide and is covered during high tide.

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Pelagic zone

  • located the seaward of the coastal zone’s low tide mark. This is always covered with water.

  • sudden shift of depth

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Oceanic zone

  • lies above the continental shelf.

  • Many sea animals are found in this zone.

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Neritic zone

  • zero visibility, edge

  • trenches

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Epipelagic zone

  • sunlight zone; light can still penetrate until sea bed

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Mesopelagic zone

  • twilight zone; dimlight; refraction

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Bathypelagic zone

does not receive any sunlight

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Hadalpelagic zone

trenches deepest of the ocean

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Abyssopelagic zone

deep sea

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71

_% of the Earth’s surface is water

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BIOSPHERE

  • Contains the entirety of Earth’s living things.

  • “zone of life”

  • integrating all living things and their relationships

  • global ecological system

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Edward Suess

term “biosphere” was coined by __ in 1875

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AQUATIC

  • freshwater (ponds, lakes, rivers) and marine biomes (ocean, estuaries (boundary between salt and freshwater, where eggs are laid, diverse animals))

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FOREST

  • includes tropical, temperate and boreal forests, taiga. (vegetation includes grasses to shrubs and trees)

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DESERT

  • Sand; low rainfall, specialized vegetation

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TUNDRA

Ice; oldest of all biomes. Low biotic diversity and have simple vegetation structure.

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NITROGEN CYCLE

  • decomposition, food webs, bacteria in freshwater

  • a biogeochemical process which transforms the inert nitrogen present in the atmosphere to a more usable form for living organisms.

  • bacteria needs nitrogen

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Nitrogen Fixation

  • the initial step of the nitrogen cycle.

Here, Atmospheric nitrogen (N2) which is primarily available in an inert form, is converted into the usable form - ammonia (NH3) - used for fertilizer for plants

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Nitrification

  • In this process, the ammonia is converted into nitrate by the presence of bacteria in the soil.

  • Nitrites are formed by the oxidation of Ammonia with the help of Nitrosomonas bacterium species. (nitrifies the bacteria)

  • Later, the produced nitrites are converted into nitrates by Nitrobacter.

  • This conversion is very important as ammonia gas is toxic for plants.

    • there should be a cycle; nitrogen → nitrate → ammonia;

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Assimilation

  • Primary producers – plants take in the nitrogen compounds from the soil with the help of their roots

    • which are available in the form of ammonia, nitrite ions, nitrate ions or ammonium ions and are used in the formation of the plant and animal proteins.

    • ammonia only = toxic

  • This way, it enters the food web when the primary consumers eat the plants.

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Ammonification

  • When plants or animals die, the nitrogen present in the organic matter is released back into the soil.

  • The decomposers, namely bacteria or fungi present in the soil, convert the organic matter back into ammonium.

This process of decomposition produces ammonia, which is further used for other biological processes.

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Denitrification

  • the process in which the nitrogen compounds makes their way back into the atmosphere by converting nitrate (NO3-)  into gaseous nitrogen (N).

  • This process of the nitrogen cycle is the final stage and occurs in the absence of oxygen.

is carried out by the denitrifying bacterial species- Clostridium and Pseudomonas, which will process nitrate to gain oxygen and gives out free nitrogen gas as a byproduct. (giving only nitrogen; filters the harmful gasses)

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OXYGEN CYCLE

CO2 + H2O → O2 + C6H12O6 (photosynthesis)

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CARBON CYCLE

  • O2 + C6H12O → CO2 + H2O (cellular respiration); mitochondria

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WATER CYCLE

  • Evaporation (liquid to gas) → Condensation (formation of clouds; water in aqueous solution) → Precipitation (clouds to rain)

  • Run off (high to low elevation)

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PHOSPHORUS CYCLE

  • is a biogeochemical process that involves the movement of phosphorus through the lithosphere, hydrosphere and biosphere (living organisms)

  • Absorption → Decomposition → Plants will absorbed thru the roots → eaten by animals or go to water carried by water cycle

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Energy Flow

the amount of energy that moves along the food chain.

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First law of thermodynamics

states that energy can neither be created nor destroyed, it can only change from one form to another.

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Second law of thermodynamics

  • that states that as energy is transferred more and more of it is wasted

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10 percent law of energy flow

  • states that when the energy is passed on from one trophic level to another, only 10 percent of the energy is passed on to the next trophic level.

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Photosynthetically Active Radiation

  • Most of the sun’s radiation that falls on the earth is usually reflected back into space by the earth’s atmosphere.

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EXOGENIC PROCESSES

  • These are external processes that occur at or near the surface of the Earth (geosphere)

  • These processes are part of the rock cycle.

  • They are responsible for transforming rock into sediment.

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WEATHERING

  • due to the weather

  • The disintegration and decomposition of rock at or near the Earth’s surface.

  • The physical breakdown and/or chemical alteration of rocks.

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MECHANICAL WEATHERING/ DISINTEGRATION

  • is breaking up large rocks into smaller fragments without changing the rocks mineral composition.

  • Frost Wedging

    • water → ice (Expands)

  • Insolation weathering/Thermal stress

  • Unloading or Pressure release

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CHEMICAL WEATHERING

decomposes rocks through chemical change

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OXIDATION-REDUCTION REACTIONS

  • transfer of electrons

  • Species that loses = oxidized; gains = reduced

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Hydrolysis

  • breaking down substances thru water; Biological Action

  • a chemical reaction of the interaction of chemicals with water, leading to the decomposition of both the substance and water.

  • Reactions of hydrolysis are possible with salts, carbohydrates, proteins, fats, etc.

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MASS WASTING

  • The downslope movement of rock, regolith, and soil under the direct influence of gravity.

  • EXAMPLES: Rock and Debris Falls, Landslides, Flows

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HUMAN MASS WASTING

Human activities may induce mass movement. It includes removal of vegetation through logging and urban development.

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TRANSPORTATION

solution, suspension, traction, saltation (moving salt), rolling

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EROSION

displacement of solids as a result of weathering

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DEPOSITION

  • The aggradation or accumulation of weathered sediments to create different landforms.

  • moving the deposits; ocean area will be bigger or land will be bigger

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ENDOOGENIC PROCESSES

  • are interval processes that occur within the Earth.

  • These result in reshaping the Earth’s landforms.

  • include tectonic processes and volcanism.

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Panthalassa

superocean

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Pangaea

supercontinent

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Alfred Wegener

proposed Continental drift theory

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TYPHOON

Tropical Cyclones that develop in the north-western part of the Pacific Ocean between 180° and 100°E.

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TROPICAL CYCLONE

  • the generic term for a non-frontal synoptic scale low-pressure system over tropical or sub-tropical waters with organized convection (i.e. thunderstorm activity) and definite cyclonic surface wind circulation

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HURRICANE

Tropical Cyclone found in the North Atlantic Ocean, the Northeast Pacific Ocean east of the dateline, or the South Pacific Ocean east of 160E)

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