chapter 5 structure and function of large biological molecules

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what are the 4 main classes of large molecules of organisms?

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1

what are the 4 main classes of large molecules of organisms?

carbohydrates

lipid

protein

nucleic acid

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2

how many amino acids are there?

20

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3

hormone

steroid, signal that travels through the body

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4

what are the 2 functions of polysaccharides?

strengthens plant and fungal cell walls and exoskeletons

stores glucose for energy

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5

steroid backbone

picture

<p>picture</p>
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6

triacyglycerol

fat, oil, glycerol, 3 fatty acids, energy source

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7

steroidd

4 fused rings with attached chemical groups, component of

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8

where is chitin found?

animals and fungi

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9

what are the 3 classes of macromolecules?

carbohydrate

protein

nucleic acid

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10
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11

macromolecule

large molecule of covalently bonded atoms

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12

polymer

long and large molecule consisting of many similar building blocks

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13
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14

monomers

small and similar building blocks that make up polymers

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15

what reaction connects monomers?

dehydration synthesis

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16

what occurs in dehydration reaction, condensation reaction, dehydration synthesis?

2 monomers are bonded together through the loss of a water molecule

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17

what type of reaction converts polymers to monomers?

hydrolysis

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18

hydro

water

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19

lysis

break

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20

what type of reaction is C6H12O6 + C6H12O6→C12H22O11 + H2O?

dehydration reaction

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21

glucose (C6H12O6)

monomer, monosaccharide

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22

what happens when 2 monomers are joined?

water molecule is removed

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23

carbohydrate

sugar, starch, fuel, building material

<p>sugar, starch, fuel, building material</p>
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24

hydrolysis

reaction that is the reverse of dehydration synthesis

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25

monosaccharide

monomer of carbohydrates, fuel, C source that can be converted to other molecules or combines into polymers

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26

ribose

5-C pentose sugar with the formula C5H10O5

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27

penta

5

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28

hexose (C6H12O6)

sugar

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29

what are the 3 hexose sugars?

glucose

galactose

fructose

<p>glucose</p><p>galactose</p><p>fructose</p>
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30

what are the 2 functional groups that hexose sugars have?

carbonyl

hydroxyl

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31

what is the difference between aldehyde sugar and ketone sugar?

the location of the carbonyl group

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32

where are the carbons in a ring structure?

at the corners or numbers

<p>at the corners or numbers</p>
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33

what is happening in this reaction: C6H12O6 + C6H12O6→C12H22O11 + H2O?

2 monomers are joined to make a polymer

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34

disaccharide

two monosaccharides joined together through dehydration synthesis

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35

what are the 3 disaccharide with the formula C12H22O11?

maltose, malt sugar

sucrose, table sugar

lactose

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36

what 2 monosaccharides make maltose, malt sugar?

glucose

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37

what 2 monosaccharides make sucrose, table sugar?

glucose and fructose

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38

what 2 monosaccharides make lactose?

glucose and galactose

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39

where is maltose, malt sugar found?

beer

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40

where is sucrose, table sugar found?

plants

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41

where is lactose found?

milk

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42

what do all sugars end in?

ose

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43

glycosidic linkage

covalent bond between 2 monosaccharides

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44

what does a 1 - 4 glycosidic linkage mean?

a number 1 C of one monosaccharide is joined to a number 4 C of another monosaccharide

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45

what are the 2 types of polysaccharides?

storage

structural

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46

storage polysaccharide ex

plants store starch

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47

structural polysaccharide ex

cellulose makes up plant cells

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48

why can cellulose not be digested by humans?

they do not have the enzymes

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49

what 3 organisms can digest cellulose?

cow

termite

fungi

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50

what carbohydrate has 1 - 4 B glucose linkages?

starch

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51

glycogen

storage polysaccharide produced by vertebrates that is in the liver of animals

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52

chitin

structural polysaccharide that gives cockroaches their crunch

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53

lipid

fat, wax, oil, phospholipid, steroid, diverse group of molecules

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54

what characteristic do all lipids have?

hydrophobic

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55

what are the 2 building blocks of fats?

glycerol

fatty acid

<p>glycerol</p><p>fatty acid</p>
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56

a fat had 3 fatty acids and 1 glycerol molecule. how many water molecules will be removed to form it?

3

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57

what process bonds the building blocks of fats?

dehydration synthesis

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58

fatty acid chain

picture

<p>picture</p>
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59

unsaturated fat

fat with one or more double bonds in its fatty acid chains

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60

2 examples of saturated fats

butter

lard

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61

2 examples of unsaturated fats

olive oil

cod liver oil

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62

why are unsaturated fats liquid at room temperature?

the kinks where the cis double bonds are located prevent the molecules from packing together closely enough to solidify at room temperature

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63

trans fat

unsaturated fat with trans double bonds formed artificially by adding H to vegetable oil

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64

why should trans fat be limited in a diet?

it can contribute to coronary heart disease

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65

phospholipid

phosphate group, 2 fatty acids

<p>phosphate group, 2 fatty acids</p>
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66

why is the tail of a phospholipid hydrophobic?

it is made up of nonpolar hydrocarbon molecules

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67

phospholipid bilayer

structure in a plasma membrane

<p>structure in a plasma membrane</p>
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68

why are the tails of the phospholipids located in the interior of a phospholipid bilayer?

to avoid the water

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69

cholesterol

3 hexagons and a doghouse structure, steroid, component of cell membrane

<p>3 hexagons and a doghouse structure, steroid, component of cell membrane</p>
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70

2 examples of steroids

estradiol

testosterone

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71

enzyme

globular protein that accelerates certain chemical reactions and exhibits at least tertiary structure

<p>globular protein that accelerates certain chemical reactions and exhibits at least tertiary structure</p>
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72

enzyme example

digestive enzymes catalyze the hydrolysis of bonds in food molecules

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73

what do storage proteins do?

stores amino acids

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74

storage protein example

ovalbumin is used as an amino source for developing embryo

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75

transport protein example

hemoglobin transports O from the lungs to other parts of the body

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76

what do defensive proteins do?

protects against diseases

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77

defensive protein example

antibodies inactivate and destroy viruses and bacteria

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78

what do hormonal proteins do?

coordinates an organism’s activities

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79

hormonal protein example

insulin causes other tissues to take up glucose this regulating blood sugar concentration

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80

amino acid

monomer of protein

<p>monomer of protein</p>
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81

R group

side chain

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82

how many R groups are there?

20

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83

what makes an R group nonpolar?

hydrocarbon

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84

what makes an R group polar?

hydroxyl, sulfhydryl, NH2

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85

what makes an R groups acidic and electrically charged?

ionized carboxyl group

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86

what makes an R group basic and electrically charged?

positively charged amino group

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87

dipeptide

protein with two amino acids

<p>protein with two amino acids</p>
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88

polypeptide

unbranched polymer of the same set of 20 amino acids, protein

<p>unbranched polymer of the same set of 20 amino acids, protein</p>
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89

peptide bond

covalent bond between the carboxyl group of one amino acid and the amino group of another amino acid from dehydration synthesis

<p>covalent bond between the carboxyl group of one amino acid and the amino group of another amino acid from dehydration synthesis</p>
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90

what are the 4 levels of protein stucture?

primary (Io)

secondary (IIo)

tertiary (IIIo)

quaternary (IIIIo)

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91

what are the 2 types of secondary (IIo) protein structures?

alpha helix

beta pleated sheet

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92

primary (Io) protein structure

sequence of amino acids, order of letters in a long word determined by inherited genetic info

<p>sequence of amino acids, order of letters in a long word determined by inherited genetic info</p>
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93

secondary (IIo) protein structure

coils and folds of a polypeptide chain found in most proteins formed from H bonds between repeating parts of the polypeptide backbone

<p>coils and folds of a polypeptide chain found in most proteins formed from H bonds between repeating parts of the polypeptide backbone</p>
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94

alpha helix

delicate coil held together by H bonding between every 4th amino acid, coil, single strand, ~

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95

beta pleated sheet

2 or more segments of a polypeptide chain lying side by side connected by H bonds in a folded structure, =

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96

tertiary (IIIo) protein structure

interaction among side chains

<p>interaction among side chains</p>
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97

quaternary (IIIIo) protein structure

multiple polypeptide chains that forms one macromolecule

<p>multiple polypeptide chains that forms one macromolecule</p>
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98

what 5 interactions are in tertiary protein structures?

H

ionic

hydrophobic interaction

van der Waals interaction

disulfide bridge

<p>H</p><p>ionic</p><p>hydrophobic interaction</p><p>van der Waals interaction</p><p>disulfide bridge</p>
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99

disulfide bridge

strong covalent bond that may reinforce the protein’s structure

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100

primary (Io) protein structure example

transthyretin is made up of 4 identical polypeptide chains each composed of 127 amino acids

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