Fall of the Roman Republic

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1

success

David Gwynn: 'The Republic was the victim of its own ____.'

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2

Empire

The Republican 'system was never intended to govern an___'

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3

balance

The Republican system maintained 'a careful ___ between collective and individual rule.'[Gwynn]

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4

slaves

The Roman agrarian economy was 'transformed by the flood of wealth and ____ that came with military victories.'

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5

equites

Group who emerged as a new class in 2nd century Rome:___ or knights

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6

129

From [133, 129, 128, 104] equestrians could become senators only via magistracies

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7

240

Average annual income of a peasant: 20000, 12400, 1200 or 240 sesterces?

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8

400

Average wealth of a member of the equestrian order: ___,000 sesterces

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9

1,000

Minimum wealth requirement of a senator: __,000 sesterces

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10

agriculture

Chief basis of wealth in late republican Rome: agriculture, slaves, trade, or army career?

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11

latifundia

'Wider fields' created in period of conquest

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12

assidui

Those eligible for Roman military service were called the a______

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13

133

Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus was elected tribune in___

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14

Cornelia

Mother of the Gracchi and daughter of Scipio Africanus: _____

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15

Italy

A turning point in Tiberius Gracchus' life was passing through ___ to Spain

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16

redistribute

Tiberius Gracchus' solution to social problems was to ____ land

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17

public

Tiberius Gracchus intended to redistribute ___ land in lots of 20 acres

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18

Gracchi

Tiberius and Gaius: the _____

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19

tombs

Much of the land that Tiberius Gracchus proposed to redistribute been in families for generations, and even the site of family ___

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20

senate

To pass his agrarian law, Tiberius Gracchus sought to bypass the ____

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21

Octavius

Tribune who sought to block T. Gracchus' reforms: Marcus ______

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22

Sempronia

T. Gracchus' agrarian law: The lex ____ agraria

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Pergamum

T. Gracchus sought to use the treasury of the late Attalus III of __ to fund his program

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24

re-election

T. Gracchus' attempt to achieve ___ as tribune contributed to his death

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25

123

Year Gaius Gracchus was elected as tribune

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26

Juvenal

Satirist who coined the phrase 'Bread and circuses'

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27

ultimum

To overthrow Gaius Gracchus, the senate used the unprecedented 'senatus consultum ______'

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28

Gracchi

121 saw the death of the last of the ____

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29

Senate

The power of which institution was undermined by the Gracchi?

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30

Jugurthine

Between 112 and 105 Rome fought the ____ War

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31

corrupt

Jugurtha was notoriously: brave, corrupt, insane, loyal

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32

107

First year Gaius Marius was elected consul

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33

Julian

Marius' wife was a member of the ____ clan

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34

new

Marius was a novus homo, or '____ man'

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35

Sulla

General who got the credit for capturing Jugurtha

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36

80,000

At the battle of Arausio or Orange in 105, the Romans reportedly lost ___ men

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37

five

How many successive consulships did Marius have?

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38

Cimbri

Marius defeated two German tribes, the ___ and Teutones

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39

stakes

Marius' successive consulships raised the ___ in Roman noble competition

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40

landless

Marius was the first to allow the 'capite sensi' or (foreigners, slaves, landless, criminals) into the army

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41

mules

Animals to which Marius' overburdened men were likened

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42

25

Marius' men carried a (12, 25, 30, 40) kg pack plus weapons

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43

bend

Marius is credited with the invention of the pilum that would ___ on impact

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44

cohort

Under Marius, the maniple was replaced as the key Roman military unit by the ____

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45

600

The cohort comprised ___ men

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46

Farm

Marius promised each of his men a ___ at the end of their service

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47

professional

Under Marius, Rome had its first fully ____ army

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48

66

By 100 BC, Rome's Italian allies comprised (33, 50, 66, 75) per cent of the Roman army

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49

tribune

The Social War was prompted by the murder of the ___, Marcus Livius Drusus

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50

Social

The war between the Romans and their Italian allies is known as the ____ War

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51

91

The Social War ran from (95, 91, 90) to 88 BC.

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52

citizenship

The Romans survived the Social War by offering ___ to its former allies

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53

consul

At the end of the Social War, Sulla was elected ___

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54

Mithridates

Sulla was initially selected to lead the campaign against King ____ of Pontus

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55

Sulpicius

Tribune ____ Rufus tried to transfer command for the war in Pontus from Sulla to Marius

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56

March

88 saw Sulla's ____ on Rome

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57

external

Gwynn: 'no ___ danger played a decisive part' in the fall of the Republic

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ambition

Gwynn: 'The fall of the Republic is...a very human story of ____ and self-sacrifice, genius and folly.'

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59

83

After leaving for the First Mithridatic War in 88, Sulla did not return to Rome until (86, 85, 83, 82).

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seventh

When Marius died in 86 he was in his ___ consulship

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61

Samnites

Last Italians standing after the Social War

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62

Colline

Sulla, Crassus and Pompey defeated their enemies at the ____ Gate in 82

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63

Dictator

What title did Sulla take in 82 or early 81?

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64

Proscriptions

Sulla's lists of those who could be eliminated without trial

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65

80

Number of senators killed in Sulla's proscription (all, 100, 80, 50)

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66

confiscated

Sulla gave (state, confiscated, conquered) land to his supporters in 81

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67

Crassus

Two leaders who made money out of the proscriptions: Pompey and ____

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68

hated

Sulla's dictatorship and proscriptions made him 'one of the most ____ men in Roman history'.

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69

Republic

Paradoxically, Sulla believed in the ____

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70

minimum

Sulla enforced ___ ages for magistracies

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71

quaestors

Sulla increased the number of ____ and praetors to make government more efficient

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72

tribunes

Sulla reduced the power of ____ to affect matters of state

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73

retired

In 79 Sulla surprised Rome when he ____

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enigma

Sulla's ruthless quest for gloria and his dedication to the Republic make him an ____

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75

epitaph

Sulla's _____ : 'no better friend, no worse enemy'

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76

Pompey

General who destroyed Sulla's reforms

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butcher

Pompey's early nickname: 'adulescentulus carnifex': the teenage _____

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78

Magnus

Pompey's nickname for himself, meaning 'the Great'

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rising

Pompey to Sulla: 'More men worship the ___ than the setting sun'

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80

Spain

In which part of the empire did Pompey defeat Quintus Sertorius?

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81

Spartacus

Pompey returned to Rome in 71, at the tail-end of the revolt of ____

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82

73

Spartacus' slave revolt began in (83, 78, 73, 71)

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83

Vesuvius

Initial base of Spartacus: Mount _____

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84

Crassus

Main leader in the defeat of Spartacus

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85

Appian

6000 of Spartacus' supporters were crucified along the ___ Way between Capua and Rome

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86

Both

Which was a consul in 70 BC? Crassus, Pompey or both?

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87

Pirates

Julius Caesar's capture in 75 illustrated the threat of ___ in the Mediterranean

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88

months

Pompey took less than five ___ to defeat the pirates from 67

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89

Cilicia

The pirates' strongholds, captured by Pompey, were in ____ in southern Asia Minor

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90

decades

It took just over two ___ for Rome to defeat Mithridates

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91

client

After defeating Mithridates, Pompey organised the conquered eastern areas into provinces and ___ kingdoms

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92

buffer

Judaea and Armenia provided ____ states for Rome against Parthia

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93

Parthia

Rome's chief rival in the first century BC

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94

doubled

Tax from Pompey's conquests in the east more than ____ Rome's state revenues

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95

Pompey

Richest man in Rome's history to 50 BC

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96

62

In (66, 62, 59, 58) Pompey celebrated the biggest triumph yet seen in Rome

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97

Cato

Leading conservative senator, Marcus Porcius ____ the Younger

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98

100

Year of Julius Caesar's birth

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99

Gaius

Caesar's praenomen

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100

59

Year Caesar became consul: (61, 60, 59, 57)

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