Comm A: Exam 1

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Stage fright

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116 Terms

1

Stage fright

anxiety over the prospect of giving a speech in front of an audience

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adrenaline

a hormone released into the bloodstream in response to physical or mental stress

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positive nervousness

controlled nervousness that helps energize a speaker for their presentation

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visualization

mental imagining in which speakers widely picture themselves giving a successful presentation

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critical thinking

focused, organized thinking about such things as the logical relationships among ideas, the soundness of evidence, and the differences between fact and opinion

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6

speaker

the person who is presenting an oral message to a listener

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message

whatever a speaker communicates to someone else

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8

channel

the means by which a message is communicated

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9

listener

the person who receives the speakers message

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10

frame of reference

the sum of a person's knowledge, experience, goals, values, and attitudes. no two people can have exactly the same frame of reference.

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11

feedback

the messages, usually nonverbal, sent from a listener to a speaker

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12

interference

anything that impedes the communication of a message. interference can be external or internal to listeners

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13

situation

the time and place in which speech communication occurs

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14

ethnocentrism

the belief that one's own group or culture is superior to all other groups or cultures

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15

ethics

the branch of philosophy that deals with issues of right and wrong in human affairs

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16

ethical decisions

sound ethical decisions involve weighing a potential course of action against a set of ethical standards or guidelines

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17

name-calling

the use of language to defame, demean, or degrade individuals or groups

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18

bill of rights

the first 10 amendments to the united states constitution

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19

plagiarism

presenting another person's language or ideas as one's own

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20

global plagiarism

steeling a speech entirely from a single source and passing it off as one's own

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21

patchwork plagiarism

stealing ideas or language from two or three sources and passing them off as one's own

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22

incremental plagiarism

failing to give credit for particular parts of a speech that are borrowed from other people

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23

paraphrase

to restate or summarize an author's ideas in one's own words

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24

hearing

the vibration of sound waves on the eardrums and the firing of electrochemical impulses in the brain

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25

listening

paying close attention to, and making sense of, what we hear

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26

appreciative listening

listening for pleasure or enjoyment

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27

empathic listening

listening to provide emotional support for a speaker

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28

comprehensive listening

listening to understand the message of a speaker

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29

critical listening

listening to evaluate a message for purposes of accepting or rejecting it

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30

spare "brain time"

the difference between the rate at which most people talk (120 to 150 words a minute) and the rate at which the brain can process language (400 to 800 words a minute)

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31

active listening

giving undivided attention to a speaker in a genuine effort to understand the speaker's point of view

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32

key word outline

an outline that briefly notes a speaker's main points and supporting evidence in rough outline form

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33

ice breaker speech

a speech early in the term designed to get students speaking in front of the class as soon as possible

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34

introduction

the opening section of a speech

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35

body

the main section of a speech

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36

chronological order

a method of speech organization in which the main points follow a time pattern

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topical order

a method of speech organization in which the main points divide the topic into logical and consistent subtopics

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38

main points

the major points developed in the body of a speech

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39

transition

a word or phrase that indicates when a speaker has finished one thought and is moving on to another

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40

conclustion

the final section of a speech

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41

extemporaneous speech

a carefully prepared and rehearsed speech that is presented from a brief set of notes

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42

gestures

motions of a speaker's hands or arms during a speech

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43

eye contact

direct visual contact with the eyes of another person

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44

topic

the subject of a speech

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45

brainstorming

a method of generating ideas for speech topics by free association of words and ideas

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46

general purpose

the broad goal of a speech

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47

specific purpose

a single infinitive phrase that states precisely what a speaker hopes to accomplish in his or her speech

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48

central idea

a one-sentence statement that sums up or encapsulates the major ideas of a speech

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49

residual message

what a speaker wants the audience to remember after they have forgotten everything else in a speech

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50

catalogue

a listing of all the books, periodicals, and other resources owned by a library

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51

call number

a number used in libraries to classify books and periodicals and to indicate where they can be found on the shelves

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52

reference work

a work that synthesizes a large amount of related information for easy access by researchers

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newspaper and periodical database

a research aid that catalogues articles from a large number of magazines, journals, and newspapers

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abstract

a summary of a magazine or journal article, written by someone other than the original author

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academic database

a database that catalogs articles from scholarly journals

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sponsoring organization

an organization that, in the absence of a clearly identified author, is responsible for the content of a document on the internet

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57

research interview

an interview conducted to gather information for a speech

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58

preliminary bibliography

a list compiled early in the research process of works that look as if they might contain helpful information about a speech topic

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59

strategic organization

putting a speech together in a particular way to achieve a particular result with a particular audience

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60

main points

the major points developed in the body of a speech

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61

chronological order

a method of speech organization in which the main points follow a time pattern

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62

spatial order

a method of speech organization in which the main points follow a directional pattern

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causal order

a method of speech organization in which the main points show a cause-effect relationship

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64

problem-solution order

a method of speech organization in which the first main point deals with the existence of a problem and the second main point presents a solution to the problem

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65

topical order

a method of speech organization in which the main points divide the topic into logical and consistent subtopics

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66

supporting materials

The materials used to support a speaker's ideas. The three major kinds of supporting materials are examples, statistics, and testimony.

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67

connective

a word or phrase that connects the ideas of a speech and indicates the relationship between them

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68

transition

a word or phrase that indicates when a speaker has finished one thought and is moving on to another

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69

internal preview

a statement in the body of the speech that lets the audience know what the speaker is going to discuss next

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70

internal summary

a statement in the body of the speech that summarizes the speaker's preceding point or points

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71

signpost

a very brief statement that indicates where a speaker is in the speech or that focuses attention on key ideas

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72

rhetorical question

a question that the audience answers mentally rather than out loud

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credibility

the audience's perception of whether a speaker is qualified to speak on a given topic

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74

goodwill

the audience's perception of whether the speaker has the best interests of the audience in mind

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75

preview statement

a statement in the introduction of a speech that identifies the main points to be discussed in the body

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76

crescendo ending

a conclusion in which the speech builds to a zenith of power and intensity

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77

dissolve ending

a conclusion that generates emotional appeal by fading step by step to a dramatic final statement

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78

preparation outline

a detailed outline developed during the process of speech preparation that includes the title, specific purpose, central idea, introduction, main points, subpoints, connectives, conclusion, and bibliography of a speech

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visual framework

the pattern of symbolization and indentation in a speech outline that shows the relationships among the speaker's ideas

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80

bibliography

a list of all the sources used in preparing a speech

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81

speaking outline

a brief outline used to jog a speaker's memory during the presentation of a speech

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82

delivery cues

directions in a speaking outline to help a speaker remember how she or he wants to deliver key parts of the speech

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83

nonverbal communication

communication based on a person's use of voice and body, rather than on the use of words

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84

manuscript speech

a speech that is written out word for word and read to the audience

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85

impromptu speech

a speech delivered with little or no immediate preparation

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86

extemporaneous speech

a carefully prepared and rehearsed speech that is presented from a brief set of notes

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87

conversational quality

presenting a speech so it sounds spontaneous no matter how many times it has been rehearsed

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88

volume

the loudness or softness of the speaker's voice

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89

pitch

the highness or lowness of the speaker's voice

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90

inflections

changes in the pitch or tone of a speaker's voice

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91

monotone

a constant pitch or tone of voice

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92

rate

the speed at which a person speaks

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93

pause

a momentary break in the vocal delivery of a speech

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94

vocalized pause

A pause that occurs when a speaker fills the silence between words with vocalizations such as "uh," "er," and "um."

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95

vocal variety

changes in a speaker's rate, pitch, and volume that give the voice variety and expressiveness

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96

pronounciation

the accepted standard of sound and rhythm for words in a given language

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97

articulation

the physical production of particular speech sounds

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98

dialect

A variety of a language distinguished by variations of accent, grammar, or vocabulary.

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99

kinesics

the study of body motions as a systematic mode of communication

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100

gestures

motions of a speaker's hands or arms during a speech

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