Anatomy

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Chemistry

163 Terms

1

anterior

front of the body

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2

posterior

the back of the body or body part

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3

Midstagittal section

An imaginary line drawn down the center of the body, dividing it into right and left halves.

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lateral

away from the midline

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5

medial

toward the midline (middle)

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6

superior

higher on the body, near the head

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7

inferior

Lower on the body, farther from the head

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8

superficial

near the surface

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9

deep

away from the surface

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10

proximal

Closer to the point of attachment

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11

distal

away from the point of attachment

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12

what is the transverse

divides the body into superior and inferior portions

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13

frontal or coronal plane

divides the anterior and posterior

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14

dorsal (CNS)

back

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15

spinal cavity

spinal cord

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cranial

houses the brain

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17

ventral

belly

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18

diaphragm divides

thoracic from the abdominal cavity

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19

thoracic cavity inside lungs houses

heart, lungs, and others

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abdominal pelvic houses

digestive sustem and most urinary system organs

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21

negative feedback (to low)

includes most homeostatic control mechanisms

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22

maintains acceptable range for many substances or situations in the body

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23

constant balance around the "ideal"

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positive feedback loops

childbirth and increase the original stimulus to push the variable farther

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25

afferent pathway

Pathway of receptor to control center

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26

efferent pathway

flow from control center to effector

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27

positive feedback loop

too high

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28

receptor

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29

afferent pathway

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30

control center

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31

efferent pathway

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32

effector

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33

back in balance

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34

negative feedback loops

too low

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35

receptor

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36

afferent pathway

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37

control center

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38

efferent pathway

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39

effector

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40

back in balance

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41

stimulus

what is kept in balance

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42

receptor

cell that notices is out of balance

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43

sends a signal to

control system

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44

the control center

CNS or endocrine system

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45

sends a signal to balance

it back out

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46

what is the effector

cell that creates balance

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47

integumentary system (skin)

maintains and create barrier between interior and exterior of body

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48

skeletal system (bones and cartilage)

site of blood cell formation for oxygen delivery around the body

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49

hematopoiesis (stem cells make bc)

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50

protects and supports body

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51

movement and locomotion muscles pull bones

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Muscular System (skeletal muscles)

produces movement, maintains posture, produces heat as a by product of contraction

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53

endocrine system

secretes regulatory hormones (proteins and lipids)

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54

aids nervous system in responding to changes in internal environment

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55

metabolism, hunger, sleep, hydration

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56

nervous system

brain, spinal cord, nerves, and supporting nervous tissues

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57

works with sensory receptors for external changes

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58

repsonds internal and external change for response

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59

urinary

kidney, ureters, bladders, and urethra

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60

exxcretes nitrogenous waste and maintain homeostatsis in blood

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61

circulatory system

heart, vein, artery

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maintins stable body temp

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transports materials in body

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64

hormones to target body part

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65

wastes to organ/body system for disposal

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oxygen and nurtients to body cells

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67

respiratory sytem

pressure between atmospheric and inner lung pressure for gas exchange

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keeps blood supplied with oxygen

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excretes carbon dioxide

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digestive system

breaks down food by metabolism

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allows for nutrient absoroption in blood

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maintains water balance in blood

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mechanical - cruching and moving vs. chemical - chemical and enzymes

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74

reproductive system

produces offspring

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75

lymphatic system

when unclean fluid escapes blood in tissues and returned back to the veins, collects fluid from body tissues, cleans it, and returns needed materials to the blood stream for immunity

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76

simple diffusion

small non polar molecules move across the membrane with a gradient (CO2 and O2)

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77

channel proteins

facilitated diffusion, each have one substance that movies through it with the gradient, large proteins that are polar like glucose, cells close channls to create gradients, when opened they send an electrical signal

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78

4 types of molecules to build membrane

  1. phospholipid 2. cholesterol 3. proteins 4. polysaccharide

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79

What is a phospholipid?

hydrophilic head, hydrophobic tails

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80
  1. makes barrier between internal and external environment

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81

cholesterol

hydrophobic tail and hydrophilic tip (adds stability and prevents rigidity)

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82

proteins

look like beans (transmembrane all the way across)

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peripheral (halfway across)

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channels and pump are transport proteins

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85

Polyssacharides

carbohydrates generally used for identification/adhesion

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86

protein pump shell

uses active transport ATP to move substances across the membrane

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87
  • creates the gradient

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88

glycoprotein

used to identify cells and adhere cells to fixtures

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89

transmembrane or peripheral

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90

receptor

has a binding site for hormone to attach to targeted cells and only target cells have receptor for the hormone

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91

receptor mediated endocytosis

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92

peripheral

enzymes, glycoprotein, receptor proteins

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93

transmembrane

channels and pumps

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94

receptor protein

endocrine or exocrine

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95

demidesmosome

anchor the cell to ECM (extracellular matrix)

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96

Adherens and desmosomes

creates layers in epithelial tissue by binding cells together and relaying positional info

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97

tight junctions

don't participate in cellular communication but hold cells firmly near apical surface, stops everything from moving in between

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gap junctinons

important for cell communication

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99

allows speedy communication

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100

all cytoplasm is connected

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