Exam #2

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Water is consisted of

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153 Terms

1

Water is consisted of

two positive hydrogen molecules separated at 105 degree angle and one negative oxygen molecule

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2

Amount of salt water in the world

97.2%

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3

Amount of ice/glaciers in the world

2.2%

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4

Amount of subsurface water in the world

0.6%

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5

Amount of lake/stream water in the world

0.01%

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6

Amount of atmospheric water in the world

0.0001%

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7

Gas

molecules are far apart, molecules move about freely, they mix well with neighboring atoms and molecules, can be transported great distances

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8

Liquid

water molecules are much closer together, they constantly bump into each other

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9

Solid

the molecules arrange themselves into an ordinary pattern, each molecule is locked into a rigid position

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10

Sublimation

ice to vapor

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11

Phase change

water changes its energy level

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12

Melting

ice to liquid

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13

Evaporation

liquid to vapor (molecules escaping)

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14

Freezing

liquid to solid

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15

Condensation

vapor to liquid (molecules returning)

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16

Deposition

vapor to solid

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17

Saturation

in a covered glass, the number of evaporating molecules will eventually balance the number that are condensating

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18

Evaporation is ____ than condensation

larger

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19

Water would evaporate more quickly

on a windy, warm, dry summer day than on a cold, calm, dry winter day

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20

Mixing

(wind) will cause air to become unsaturated; more molecules leave the surface and evaporation increases

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21

Factors that increase evaporation

increasing wind, increasing temperatures

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22

Warm water

molecules move faster

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23

Condensation nuclei

bits of dust, smoke, and salt that water easily adheres to

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24

In cool air

the molecules are moving slower and they are more likely to stick and condense to nuclei

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25

Condensation occurs

as the atmosphere is cooled

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26

Quantifying Humidity

measuring moisture

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27

Air parcel

a volume of air that has flexible walls and cannot mix with the environment around it (has water vapor, nitrogen, oxygen)

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28

Relative humidity

the ratio of the amount of water vapor actually in the air to the maximum amount of vapor required for saturation at that temperature (and pressure)

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29

Relative humidity equation

water vapor content(the amount of moisture in the atmosphere) or actual vapor content/water vapor capacity (how much moisture can be in the atmosphere) or saturation vapor pressure X 100%

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30

The two ways to change the relative humidity of an air parcel

Change the vapor content or change the temperature

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31

Adding water vapor

increases the relative humidity

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32

Warming the air

will decrease the relative humidity (inverse relationship)

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33

Cooling the air

will increase the relative humidity (inverse relationship)

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34

Because vapor content changes slowly over most regions

temperatuer changes dictates relative humidity

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35

Dewpoint

the temperature to which air would have to be cooled for saturation to occur

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36

High dewpoint

higher overall moisture content

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37

Low dewpoint

low overall moisture content

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38

When the air temperature and depoint are close together

relative humidity is high

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39

When air temperature and dewpoint are far apart

relative humidity is low

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40

Heat Index

the apparent temperature, a combination of air temperature and relative humidity

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41

If temperature and humidity are equal, dew point will always be

100% (causes snow, rain, fog)

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42

Fog

a cloud in contact with the ground, forms when condensation begins to form on less active nuclei, usually when relative humidity is closer to 100%

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43

Fog is formed in two ways

Cooling the air to its saturation point (dew point) and melting and evaporation (adding more vapor content to the atmosphere)

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44

Fog is maintain by

Forming new fog droplets, adding moisture to the atmosphere (puddles, lakes, recent rains/snow melt, etc.)

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45

Stratus

layers

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46

Cumulus

heap

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47

Cirrus

curl of hair

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48

nimbus

violent rain

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49

High clouds

form above 20,000 feet, almost exclusively ice-crystal clouds, little moisture available-thin clouds

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50

Cirrus clouds

most common high cloud, thin and wispy clouds, move from west to east, indicate the wind direction at elevation, generally pleasant and fair weather

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51

Cirrocumulus Cloud

high cloud, small, rounded, white puffs, isolated or in rows, rarely cover a small portion of the sky

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52

Rows

rippling appearance; scales of fish

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53

Isolated

little piles of sand

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54

Cirrostratus Cloud

thin, sheet-like high clouds, so thin sun and moon can shine through, usually produce a halo, form ahead of approaching storms

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55

Middle Clouds

cloud bases: 6,500-23,00 feet, water droplets and ice crystals, thicker clouds that sometimes dim the sun

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56

Altocummulus clouds

Gray, puffy, masses-waves or bands, can be an overcast cloud, sometimes look like little castles, precursor of summer afternoon thunderstorms

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57

Altostratus clouds

gray, bluish color-covers the sky, a milky look, sun is dimly visible, one big thin blanket, won’t see any shadows, forms ahead of storms producing widespread rain

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58

Low clouds

cloud bases below 6,500 feet, comprised of water droplets (mostly), gloomy looking sky-often in winter

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59

Stratocummulus clouds

low and lumpy clouds, appear in rows or patches, blue sky is sometimes visible, usually precipitation free cloud

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60

Nimbostratus clouds

dark gray, wet-looking clouds, associated with continuous light precipitation (drizzle, rain, snow), very low-lying clouds, though tops can exceed 10,000 feet, visibility is low, can sometimes break apart in the wind

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61

Scud clouds

broken apart clouds in the wind, they form irregular shreds with a ragged appearance, often seen on the fringes of thunderstorms and are sometimes misreported as tornadoes or funnel clouds

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Stratus Clouds

uniform, grayish cloud, covers the entire sky, resembles fog although it doesn’t touch the ground, light precipitation can fall

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63

Vertically developed clouds

cloud bases are 1,000-5,00 feet, cloud tops are 5,000-8,000 feet, comprised of ice and water

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64

Cumulus clouds

variety of shapes, cotton ball, sharp outlines and puffy, base is light and gray, detached clouds and have dome-like tops, show slight vertical growth

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65

Cumulus humilis

fair weather clouds

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66

cumulus congestus

towering cloud

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67

Cumulonimbus clouds

continuously growing, thunderstorm, base may start at 2,000 feet and tops can grow to 40,000 feet and higher, vertical growth depends to updrafts and downdrafts inside the thunderstorm

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68

Anvil

flat top of a tall cumulonimbus cloud, shows movement of the thunderstorm by the direction it is pointing

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69

Castellanus

castle or tower like

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70

Vertical extensions

found on cumulus clouds

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71

Clouds form by

cool air, condense air

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72

Lenticular

shaped like a UFO that hovers over a mountain, forms as moist air crosses over a mountainous area and then takes on a lens shape appearance

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73

Pileus

thin scarf over the top of a thin cloud, forms as moist winds are deflected up and over the top of cumulus or cumulonimbus clouds

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74

Mammatus

pouch-like sacs that hang underneath the anvil portion of cumulonimbus clouds, forms as sinking air remains cooler than the surrounding air near the underside of a thundercloud (anvil area), strong winds make the rounded “udder-like” appearance

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75

Contrail

short for condensation trail, forms in the wake of jet aircraft engines, high ice/water cloud that forms from vapor and exhaust particles

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76

Undulatus asperatus

described as visible air motions rolling through the sky

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77

Wall clouds

a low hanging cloud that usually rotates and spins in a counter-clockwise direction from a cumulonimbus cloud, tornadoes can form from these

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78

Shelf cloud

cool, sinking air from a thunderstorm downdraft spread out across the land. this outflow cuts under the warm air being drawn into the storm’s updraft. as the lower, cooler air lifts the warm moist air, the water condense, creating a cloud

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79

Clear conditions

no clouds present

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80

Few clouds

1/8-2/8 of the sky

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81

Scattered clouds

3/8-4/8

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82

Broken sky/clouds

5/8-7/8

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83

Overcast

total sky covered by clouds

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84

Geostationary orbiting satellite

orbits at the equator at the same rate the Earth spins

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85

Polar orbiting satellite

passes over north and south poles as Earth turns, takes many orbits to see the entire Earth, but in great detail

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86

Visible imagery

a type of satellite imagery. light is reflected from the clouds and only available when the sun is out. thicker clouds reflect more and appear white. very clear and concise picture of the clouds/Earth

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87

Infrared imagery

type of satellite imagery. amount of radiation increases with temperature. warm clouds are lower in the atmosphere (darker, closer to warm ground). cloud cloud are higher in the atmosphere (brighter, temperature decreases in the troposphere)

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88

Water vapor imagery

type of satellite imagery. shows areas of high moisture content in the atmosphere. very useful at showing upper-level storm systems. darker areas (dry air) are orange and black, lighter areas (moist air) are green, gray, and white

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89

Frozen dew

if the air temperature should drop to freezing or below, the dew will freeze, becoming tiny beads of ice

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90

haze

a layer of dust or salt particles

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91

radiation fog (ground fog)

fog produced by Earth’s radiational cooling. forms on clear nights when a shallow layer of moist air near the ground is overlain by dryer air. the moist lower layer (chilled rapidly by the cold ground) quickly becomes saturated and fog forms

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92

Advection fog

occurs when warm, moist air moves over a cold surface and the air cools to below its dew point

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93

Advection-radiation fog

fog that forms as relatively warm moist air moves over a colder surface that is cooled mainly by radiational cooling. advection fog that forms on land

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94

Evaporation fog (mixing fog)

fog produced when sufficient water vapor is added to the air by evaporation and the moist air mixes with relatively drier air

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95

Steam fog

common form of evaporation fog is steam fog, which forms when cold air moves over warm water

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96

Frontal fog (precipitation fog)

type of evaporation fog. forms when warm rain falls through a layer of cold moist air

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97

Hygroscopic

condensation nuclei that have affinity for water vapor

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98

Dewpoint

mugginess of the atmosphere. it is related to the quantity of moisture in the atmosphere

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99

Stability

a condition of equilibrium, measures the tendency of the air to rise or sink

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100

stable equilibrium

a displaced object tends to return to its original location

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