Bio 202: Lecture 14-20

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120 Terms

1

tissue

a group of cells that function as a unit to perform a similar function

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2

dermal tissue

external tissue that serves as protection from water loss, disease, and herbivores; type of plant tissue

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3

ground tissue

forms internal tissues and can participate in photosynthesis, storage, or structural support; type of plant tissue

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4

vascular tissue

conducts water and nutrients; type of plant tissue

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5

meristematic tissue

responsible for plant growth/cell division; type of plant tissue

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6

epidermis

type of dermal tissue

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7

protoderm

type of primary meristem; type of dermal tissue

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8

cortex

contains collenchyma; type of ground tissue

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9

ground meristem

type of primary meristem; type of ground tissue

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10

procambium

type of primary meristem ;type of vascular tissue

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11

trichomes

hair-like outgrowths of the epidermis; can keep leaf cool, reduce evaporation, and deter herbivores

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12

root hairs

hair-like extensions from epidermal cells that increase the surface area of the root

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13

parenchyma

most common cell type that functions in storage, photosynthesis, and secretion; type of ground tissue

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14

collenchyma

provides flexible support in the cortex; type of ground tissue

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15

sclerenchyma

provides support with extremely thick, rigid cell walls; type of ground tissue

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16

fiber

provides support to vascular tissue and is dead at maturity; type of sclerenchyma

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17

sclereids

function in protection and is dead at maturity; type of sclerenchyma

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18

xylem

principal water-conducting tissue that is dead at maturity; type of vascular tissue

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19

phloem

principal food-conducting tissue that is alive at maturity; type of vascular tissue

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20

inside

Vascular tissue is arranged in bundles...xylem to the_____

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21

outside

Vascular tissue is arranged in bundles...phloem to the____

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22

monocot stems

Vascular bundles are scattered throughout the stem

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23

dicot stems

Vascular bundles are arranged in a ring around the edge of the stem

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24

meristems

permanent regions of growth and active cell division

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25

apical meristems

regions of cell division at the tips of roots and shoots; primary growth

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26

primary meristems

tissue that develops from apical meristems

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27

lateral meristems

produce secondary tissues that increase the diameter of the plant; secondary growth

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28

vascular cambium

increases girth and produces wood; type of lateral meristem

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29

cork cambium

produces bark; type of lateral meristem

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30

anatomy

an organisms physical structure or form

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31

physiology

how an organisms body functions

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32

adaptations

traits that improve an individual's ability to survive and reproduce

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33

trade-offs

alternative that must be given up when one choice is made rather than another

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34

acclimatization

short term and reversible change that occurs in an individual in response to environmental fluctuations

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35

nervous tissue

cells that carry electrical messages between the brain and every other part of the body

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36

dendrites

receive messages from other cells; type of neuron

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37

axons

conduct impulses away from the cell body; type of neuron

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38

skeletal muscle

attaches to bones and is responsible for most body movements; type of muscle tissue

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39

cardiac muscle

walls of the heart and pumps blood throughout the body; type of muscle tissue

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40

smooth muscle

lines the walls of the digestive tract and blood vessels that control movement through those systems; type of muscle tissue

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41

epithelial tissue

tissues that cover the outside of the body and line surfaces of organs

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42

organ

a collection of tissues that carry out a specialized function of the body

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43

simple epithelia

one layer of cells that allows gasses, water, and nutrients to move easily; type of epithelial tissue

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44

stratified epithelia

multiple layers of cells that protect the body surface from the environment; type of epithelial tissue

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45

connective tissue

provides support for the body and connects all its parts

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46

loose connective tissue

holds organs and tissues together, contains fibrous proteins; fat tissue

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47

dense connective tissue

tendons and ligaments that connect muscles, bones, and organs; collagen fibers

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48

supporting connective tissue

bone and cartilage that provide structural support and protective enclosures for components of the nervous system

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49

fluid connective tissue

blood

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50

homeostasis

stability in chemical and physical conditions within an organism's cells, tissue, and organs

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51

enzyme function

homeostasis is dependent on ____

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52

sensor

a structure that senses some aspect of the external or internal environment through temperature receptors; a homeostatic system

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53

integrator

evaluates incoming sensory information and decides whether a response is necessary using the brain; a homeostatic system

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54

effector

a structure that restore the internal condition; a homeostatic system

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55

negative feedback

homeostatic systems are based on___

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56

temperature

a measure of thermal energy

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57

heat

the transfer of thermal energy

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58

conduction

a direct transfer of heat between two physical bodies that are in contact with each other; thermoregulation

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59

convection

heat is exchanged between a solid and a moving liquid or gas; thermoregulation

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60

thermal radiation

transfer of heat between two bodies that are not in direct physical contact; thermoregulation

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61

evaporation

an endothermic process that results in a loss of heat; thermoregulation

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62

endothermic process

a chemical reaction that absorbs heat; thermoregulation

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63

endotherm

an animal that gains heat from internal metabolic processes; maintain a relatively constant body temperature

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64

ectotherm

an animal that gains heat from external sources; dependent on environmental temperature

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65

homeothermy

constant body temperature within a narrow range

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66

endothermic homeotherms

humans are ____(thermoregulation)

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67

poikilothermy

variable body temperature over a broad range

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68

thermal equilibrium

when an organism is at equal temperature with the environment

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69

organ system

group of organs that work together to perform a function

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70

diffusion

movement of molecules from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration

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71

state of equilibrium

molecules distributed throughout available space

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72

osmosis

diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane to lower concentration

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73

turgor pressure

the pressure that water molecules exert against the cell wall

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74

plasmolysis

a cell shrinks due to the loss of water through osmosis

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75

water potential

used to predict which way water will move

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76

pressure potential

turgor pressure resulting from pressure against the cell wall

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77

pressure potential increases

as turgor pressure increases ____

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78

solute potential

the concentration of solute in each solution

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79

solute potential decreases

as solute concentration increases ____

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80

total water potential

solute potential + pressure potential

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81

transpiration

evaporation of water from the leaves of a plant

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82

cohesion-tension theory

upward water movement through vascular tissue due to transpiration

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83

aquaporins

enhance osmosis by bulk flow

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84

apoplast route

movement through the cell walls and the space between cells

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85

symplast route

cytoplasm continuum between cells connected by plasmodesmata

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86

transmembrane route

out of one cell, across a cell wall, and into another cell

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87

bulk flow

the directional mass movement of a fluid due to pressure differences

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88

pressure flow theory

how carbohydrates are moved through the phloem

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89

source

a tissue where sugar enters the phloem

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90

sink

tissue where sugar exits the phloem

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91

liebigs law of the minimum

if one of the essential plant nutrients is deficient, plant growth will be poor even when all other essential nutrients are abundant

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92

liver

secretes molecules that aid in fat digestion; an accessory gland

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93

gallbladder

stores secretions from liver; empties into small intestine; an accessory gland

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94

pancreas

secretes enzymes and other materials into the small intestine

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95

lingual lipase

begins the digestion of lipids by saliva

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96

peristalsis

involuntary waves of muscle contraction to move food through the digestive system

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97

muscle contractions

when food enters the stomach, _____ result in churning that mixes and breaks down the food mechanically

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98

negative charge

soil particles have a ____

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99

cation exchange capacity

the ability of a particular soil to absorb and release cations

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100

ammonia, nitrate

plants need ____ or ___ to build proteins

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