CH 12

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external genitalia

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121 Terms

1

external genitalia

sex, or reproductive, organs visible on the outside of the body; also called genitals

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2

gestation

length of time from conception to birth (pregnancy)

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3

lactation

production and release of milk by mammary glands

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4

orifice

mouth; entrance, or outlet of any anatomical structure

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5

Mons pubis

an elevation of adipose tissue covered by skin and coarse pubic hair that cushions the pubis

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6

Perineum

area between vagina and anus

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7

Ova

female reproductive cells

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8

Ovaries

almond-shaped organs located in the pelvic cavity; form and store egg cells (ova) and produce the hormones estrogen and progesterone

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9

Graafian follicles

microscopic sacs in the ovaries

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10

Mature follicle

large, fluid-filled follicle ready to expel secondary oocyte during ovulation

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11

Ovulation

process in which an egg is released from the ovary

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12

Corpus luteum

name given to a follicle after ovulation

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13

Fallopian tubes

the tubes extending from the uterus to the ovary; also called the oviducts

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14

Fimbriae

fingerlike projections that create wavelike currents in fluid surrounding the ovary to move the ovum into the uterine tube

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15

Uterus

contains and nourishes the embryo from the time the fertilized egg is implanted until the fetus is born

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16

Anteflexion

tilting forward

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17

fundus

rounded upper portion of the uterus

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18

body

central part of the uterus

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19

cervix

inferior constricted portion of uterus neck of the uterus

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20

vagina

a muscular tube that connects the uterus to the outside of the body

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21

Bartholin glands

lubricates the vaginal orifice during sexual excitement

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22

Clitoris

anterior to the vaginal orifice, composed of erectile tissue

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23

episiotomy

surgical incision of the perineum to enlarge the vagina and so facilitate delivery during childbirth

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24

Adipose tissue

enlarges size of breasts

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25

lactiferous duct

A duct through which milk is secreted and which opens at the nipple

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26

nipple

projection from the breast into which the lactiferous ducts open

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27

areola

dark-pigmented area surrounding the breast nipple

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28

menarche

the first menstrual period in puberty

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29

parturition

childbirth

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30

Stage of dilation

First stage of labor, begins with uterine contractions and terminates when there is complete dilation of the cervix (10 cm)

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31

Stage of expulsion

time from complete cervical dilation to birth of the baby

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32

Placental stage

birthing stage in which the placenta and umbilical cord are expelled from the mother's body

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33

Amenorrhea

absence of menses

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34

Menopause

gradual ending of menstruation

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35

Climacteric; change of life

period in which symptoms of approaching menopause occur

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36

vaginal atrophy

vaginal drying and thinning

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37

Hormone replacement therapy

the use of the female hormones estrogen and progestin to replace those the body no longer produces during and after perimenopause

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38

Embryo

what the unborn child is referred to as up to the third month of pregnancy

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39

Fetus

what the unborn child is referred to as after the third month of pregnancy

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40

atresia

congenital absence or closure of a normal body opening, such as the vagina

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41

choriocarcinoma

malignant neoplasm of the uterus or at the site of an ectopic pregnancy

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42

dyspareunia

painful sexual intercourse

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43

endocervicitis

inflammation of the mucous lining of the cervix uteri

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44

Menstrual disorders

Abnormal condition in the menstrual cycle; also called dysfunctional uterine bleeding (DUB)

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45

Amenorrhea

absence of menstruation

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46

dysmenorrhea

painful menstruation

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47

menorrhagia

abnormally heavy or long menstrual periods

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48

metorrhagia

irregular uterine bleeding between menstrual periods or after menopause

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49

oligomenorrhea

abnormally light or infrequent menstruation

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50

premenstrual syndrome (PMS)

symptoms that occur between ovulation and the onset of menstruation

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51

sterility

inability of the female to become pregnant or the male to impregnate the female

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52

uterine fibroids

benign tumors composed of muscle and fibrous tissue that develop in the uterus

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53

abortion

termination of pregnancy

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54

abruptio placentae

premature separation of the placenta from the uterine wall

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55

breech presentation

common abnormality of delivery in which the fetal buttocks or feet present first rather than the head

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56

Down Syndrome

genetic condition in which there is an extra copy of chromosome 21 (trisomy), altering physical and mental development of the child; also called trisomy 21

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57

eclampsia

most serious form of toxemia during pregnancy

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58

ectopic pregnancy

pregnancy in which the fertilized ovum becomes implanted on any tissue other than the lining of the uterine cavity

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59

placenta previa

obstetric complication in which the placenta is attached close to or covers the cervical canal that results in bleeding during labor when the cervix dilates

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60

amniocentesis

transabdominal puncture of the amniotic sac under ultrasound guidance using a needle and syringe to remove amniotic fluid

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61

chorionic villus sampling

sampling of placental tissues for prenatal diagnosis of potential genetic defects

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62

colposcopy

visual examination of the vagina and cervix with an optical magnifying instrument

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63

cordocentesis

diagnostic prenatal test in which a sample of the baby's blood is removed from the umbilical cord for testing

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64

endometrial biopsy

removal of a sample of uterine endometrium for microscopic study

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65

insufflation

delivery of pressurized air or gas into a cavity, chamber, or organ to allow visual examination, remove an obstruction, or apply medication

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66

Papanicolaou (Pap) test

an exfoliative cytology test to detect abnormal cells that are scraped from the cervix, usually obtained during routine pelvic examination

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67

pelvimetry

measurement of pelvic dimensions to determine whether the head of the fetus will be able to pass through the bony pelvis to allow delivery

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68

hysterosalpingography

radiography and, usually, fluoroscopy of the uterus and uterine tubes (oviducts) following injection of a contrast medium

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69

mammography

a radiographic examination of the breasts to detect the presence of tumors or precancerous cells

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70

transvaginal ultrasound

ultrasound technique performed through the vagina

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71

cerclage

suturing of the cervix to prevent it from dilating prematurely during pregnancy, thus decreasing the chance of a spontaneous abortion

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72

cesarean section (C-section)

incision of the abdomen and uterus to remove the fetus

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73

colpocleisis

surgical closure of the vaginal canal

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74

conization

surgical removal of a core of cervical tissue for biopsy

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75

cryosurgery

use of cold temperatures to destroy tissue

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76

dilation and curettage (D&C)

widening of the cervical canal with a dilator and scraping of the uterine endometrium with a curette

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77

Hysterectomy

surgical removal of the uterus

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78

subtotal hysterectomy

hysterectomy where the cervix, ovaries, and fallopian tubes remain

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79

Total hysterectomy

hysterectomy where the cervix is removed but the ovaries and fallopian tubes remain

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80

total plus bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy

total (complete) hysterectomy, including removal of the uterus, cervix, fallopian tubes, and ovaries

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81

laparoscopy

visual examination of the abdominal cavity with a laparoscope through one or more small incisions in the abdominal wall, usually at the umbilicus

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82

lumpectomy

excision of a small primary breast tumor and some of the normal tissue that surrounds it

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83

mammoplasty

surgical reconstruction of a breast

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84

augmentation

insertion of a breast prosthesis (filled with silicone gel or saline) beneath the skin or beneath the pectoralis major muscle

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85

reduction

breast reduction to reduce the size of a large, pendulous breast

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86

mastectomy

removal of the breast

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87

total (simple) mastectomy

excision of the entire breast, nipple, areola, and the involved overlying skin

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88

Modified radical mastectomy

the surgical removal of the entire breast and all of the axillary lymph nodes under the adjacent arm but with the chest muscles left intact

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89

radical

excision of the entire breast, all underarm lymph nodes, and chest wall muscles under the breast

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90

reconstructive breast surgery

creation of a breast-shaped mound to replace a breast that has been removed due to cancer or other disease

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91

tissue (skin) expansion

common breast reconstruction technique in which a balloon expander is inserted beneath the skin and chest muscle, saline solution is gradually injected to increase size, and the expander is then replaced with a more permanent implant

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92

transverse rectus abdominis muscle (TRAM) flap

surgical creation of a skin flap (using skin and fat from the lower half of the abdomen), which is passed under the skin to the breast area, shaped into a natural-looking breast, and sutured into place

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93

tubal ligation

procedure that ties (ligates) the fallopian tubes to prevent pregnancy

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94

intrauterine device (IUD)

small, T-shaped device inserted by a physician inside the uterus to prevent pregnancy

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95

amni/o

amnion

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96

cervic/o

neck; cervix uteri

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97

colp/o, vagin/o

vagina

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98

galact/o, lact/o

milk

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99

gynec/o

woman, female

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100

hyster/o, metri/o, uter/o

uterus (womb)

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