Biology All Terms

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Evolution

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516 Terms

1

Evolution

any change in the heritable traits within a population across generations, "descent with modification"

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2

Natural Selection

increases the frequency of favorable adaptations to an environment, the mechanism which drives evolution

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3

Taxonomy

The organization of species into a nested classification system

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4

artificial selection

a human-controlled process to produce individuals with certain traits

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5

Homology

Similarity in characteristics resulting from a shared ancestry.

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6

vestigial structures

remnant of a structure that may have had an important function in a species' ancestors.

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7

convergent evolution

Process by which unrelated organisms independently evolve similarities when adapting to similar environments

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8

analogous structures

Body parts that share a common function, but not structure

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9

Biogeography

Geographic distribution of species.

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10

Lamarck's (incorrect) Theory of Evolution

individuals can acquire traits during their lifetime and pass them onto their offspring

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11

3 Domains of Life

Bacteria, Archaea, Eukarya

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12

Eukarya

all organisms that have a nucleus

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13

Prokarya

organisms that do not have a nucleus

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14

Archaea

bacteria that live in extreme environments

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15

Eukarya Kingdoms

Protista, Plantae, Fungi, Animalia

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16

horizontal gene transfer

transfer of genes between cells of the same generation

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17

Phylogeny

Evolutionary history of a species / group of species

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18

Systematics

study of the evolutionary relationships between organisms

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19

Cladistics

classification based on common ancestry

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20

phylogenetic trees

Branching diagrams that depict hypotheses about evolutionary relationships.

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21

analogy

similarity of function and superficial resemblance of structures that have different origins

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22

Molecular Homologies

Similar DNA sequences in different taxa

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23

Molecular homoplasies

shared bases in nucleotide sequences that are otherwise very dissimilar

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24

Genus

A classification grouping that consists of a number of similar, closely related species

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25

Family

Group of genera that share many characteristics

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26

Order

Group of similar families

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27

Classes

In classification, the taxonomic category above order.

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28

Phyla

In classification, the taxonomic category above class.

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29

Kingdom

First and largest category used to classify organisms

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30

Domain

A taxonomic category above the kingdom level. The three domains are Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukarya.

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31

Taxon

any particular group within a taxonomic system

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32

monophyletic

ALL descendants came from one common ancestor

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33

paraphyletic

Pertaining to a group of taxa that consists of a common ancestor and some, but not all, of its descendants.

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34

clades

A group of species that includes an ancestral species and all its descendants.

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35

binomial nomenclature

A system for giving each organism a two-word scientific name that consists of the genus name followed by the species name

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36

Microevolution

Change in allele frequencies in a population over generations.

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37

genetic variation

The variety of different types of genes in a species or population.

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38

population

a group of organisms of the same species populating a given area

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39

gene pool

All the genes that are present in a population at any one time

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40

Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium

condition that occurs when the frequency of alleles in a particular gene pool remain constant over time

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41

genetic drift

A change in the allele frequency of a population as a result of chance events rather than natural selection.

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42

founder effect

Genetic drift that occurs when a few individuals become isolated from a larger population and form a new population whose gene pool composition is not reflective of that of the original population.

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43

bottleneck effect

A change in allele frequency following a dramatic reduction in the size of a population

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44

allele

Different forms of a gene

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45

mutation

A change in a gene or chromosome.

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46

gene flow

movement of alleles from one population to another

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47

adaptive evolution

a process in which traits that enhance survival or reproduction tend to increase in frequency in a population over time

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48

relative fitness

the contribution an individual makes to the gene pool of the next generation relative to the contributions of other individuals

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49

directional selection

Natural selection in which individuals at one end of the phenotypic range survive or reproduce more successfully than do other individuals.

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50

disruptive selection

natural selection that favors individuals at both extremes of the phenotypic range

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51

stablizing selection

natural selection where individuals with the average form of a trait have the highest fitness

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52

balancing selection

natural selection that maintains two or more phenotypic forms in a population

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53

heterozygote advantage

occurs when heterozygotes have a higher fitness than do both homozygotes

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54

sexual selection

Natural selection for mating success.

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55

sexual dimorphism

distinct difference in size or appearance between the sexes of a species

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56

speciation

the formation of new and distinct species in the course of evolution.

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57

Macroevolution

large-scale evolutionary changes that take place over long periods of time

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58

biological species concept

Species is a group of populations whose members have the potential to produce fertile offspring.

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59

species

a group of living organisms consisting of similar individuals capable of exchanging genes or interbreeding.

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60

prezygotic barriers

prevent mating between species

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61

postzygotic barriers

Barriers that prevent the hybrid zygote from becoming a fertile adult.

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62

morphological species concept

characterizes a species by body shape and other structural features

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63

ecological species concept

A definition of species in terms of ecological niche, the sum of how members of the species interact with the nonliving and living parts of their environment.

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64

phylogenetic species concept

A definition of species as the smallest group of individuals that share a common ancestor, forming one branch on the tree of life.

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65

allopatric speciation

The formation of new species in populations that are geographically isolated from one another.

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66

sympatric speciation

The formation of new species in populations that live in the same geographic area

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67

Polyploidy

condition in which an organism has extra sets of chromosomes

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68

Autopolyploid

an individual that has more than two chromosome sets that are all derived from a single species

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69

allopolyploid

a species with multiple sets of chromosomes derived from different species

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70

punctuated equilibria

The theory that species evolve during short periods of rapid change

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71

examples of prezygotic barriers

habitat isolation, temporal isolation, behavioral isolation

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72

examples of postzygotic barriers

hybrid sterility

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73

geologic record

a standard time scale that divides Earth's history into four eons and further subdivisions

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74

mass extinction

A large extinction of species in a relatively short period of time

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75

adaptive radiation

An evolutionary pattern in which many species evolve from a single ancestral species

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76

heterochrony

Change in the rate or timing of a developmental event

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77

Paedomorphosis

The retention in an adult organism of the juvenile features of its evolutionary ancestors.

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78

Conditions for Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium

no mutations, random mating, no natural selection, extremely large population size, no gene flow

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79

2 examples of genetic drift

founder effect and bottleneck effect

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80

Linnaean Classification System

Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species

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81

Gene Expression

conversion of the information encoded in a gene first into messenger RNA and then to a protein

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82

Transcription

synthesis of RNA from DNA

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83

Messenger RNA

copies the message from DNA in the nucleus and carries the message to the ribosome

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translation

Process by which mRNA is decoded and a protein is produced

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85

ribosomes

site of protein synthesis

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86

primary transcript

The initial mRNA transcript that is produced from DNA synthesis.

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87

triplet code

Three nucleotides that specifies a specific amino acid.

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88

Template Strand

The DNA strand that provides the template for ordering the sequence of nucleotides in an mRNA transcript.

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89

Codons

A three-nucleotide sequence of DNA or mRNA that specifies a particular amino acid or termination signal; the basic unit of the genetic code.

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90

nontemplate strand

the strand of DNA that is not used to transcribe mRNA; this strand is identical to the mRNA except that T nucleotides in the DNA are replaced by U nucleotides in the mRNA

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91

reading frame

Reading mRNA nucleotides in the correct groupings.

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92

RNA polymerase

Enzyme that transcribes DNA.

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93

Promoter

specific region of a gene where RNA polymerase can bind and begin transcription

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94

terminator

A special sequence of nucleotides that marks the end of a genes.

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95

transcription unit

A region of DNA that is transcribed into an RNA molecule.

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96

RNA splicing

Process by which the introns are removed from RNA transcripts and the remaining exons are joined together.

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97

introns

sequence of DNA that is not involved in coding for a protein

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98

exons

expressed sequence of DNA; codes for a protein

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99

spliceosome

complex of enzymes that serves to splice out the introns of a pre-mRNA transcript

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100

ribozymes

RNA molecules that function as enzymes and can splice RNA

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