Biology 14

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Frederick Griffith studied streptococcus pneumoniae, a pathogenic beterium causing ___

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1

Frederick Griffith studied streptococcus pneumoniae, a pathogenic beterium causing ___

pneumonia

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2

2 strains of streptococcus are the _ strain that is virulent, and the _ strain that is nonvirulent

S, R

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3

Live virulent _ strain killed the mice, and the live nonvirulent strain _ did not kill the mice

S, R

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4

Heat killed __ strain cells did not kill the mice

virulent

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5

Heat killed virulent strain and the live nonvirulent strain did __ the mouse

kill

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6

Information specifying virulence passed from the dead S strain cells into the live R strain cells, where __ material was transferred between the cells is known as __

genetic, transformation

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7

Avery, MacLeod, and McCarty's experiment digested proteins from the transforming material and did not destroy its ability to transform _ strain cells

R

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8

DNA digesting enzyme __ all transforming ability

destroyed

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9

DNA was supported as the __ material

genetic

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10

Bacteriophage are viruses that infect __

bacteria

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11

Bacteriophage consists of __ and __

DNA and protein

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12

Bacteriophage DNA was labeled with radioactive phosphorous (), and protein was labeled with radioactive sulfur ()

32P, 35S

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13

Only the bacteriophage DNA entered the bacteria and was used to produce more ___, concluding DNA is the genetic material

bacteriophage

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14

DNA structure includes a 5 carbon sugar ___, phosphate group, a __ base, and a free __ group

deoxyribose, nitrogenous, hydroxyl

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15

Phosphate group attached to _ prime end

5

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16

Hydroxyl group attached to __ prime end

3

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17

Phosphodiester bond is between adjacent __

nucleotides

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18

____ bonds are formed between phosphate group of one nucleotide and the 3' OH of the next nucleotide

phosphodiester

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19

Erwin Chargaff determined A = _ and C = _

T, G

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20

Rosalind Franklin discovered that DNA is __

helical

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21

A forms _ hydrogen bonds with T

2

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22

G forms _ hydrogen bonds with C

3

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23

DNA replication requires something to _, something to do the _, and __ to make the copy

copy, copying, building blocks

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24

Something to copy is the __ DNA molecule

parental

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25

Something to do the copying are __

enzymes

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26

Building blocks to make copies are nucleotide __

triphosphates

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27

Semiconservative replications means that there is _ old strand and _ new strand

1, 1

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28

Initiation is when __ begins

replication

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29

Elongation are new strands of __ that are synthesized by DNA polymerase

DNA

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30

termination is when __ is terminated

replication

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31

DNA polymerase matches existing DNA bases with complementary __ and links them

nucleotides

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32

DNA polymerases all have several common features: add new bases to _ prime end of existing strands, synthesize in a _ prime to _ prime direction, and requires a _ of RNA

3, 5 to 3, primer

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33

Replicon is DNA controlled by an __

origin

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34

Prokaryotic replication is a __ circular molecule of DNA

single

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35

In prokaryotic replication, replication begins at the __ of replication

origin

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36

Prokaryotic replication proceeds in __ directions around the chromosome (bidirectional)

both

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37

DNA polymerase _ acts on lagging strand to remove primers and replace with DNA

1

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38

DNA polymerase _ is involved in DNA repair

2

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39

DNA polymerase _ is the main replication enzyme

3

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40

All 3 DNA polymerases have a __ ability (3' to 5'_

proofreading

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41

Helicases use energy from ATP to __ DNA

unwind

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42

Single strand binding proteins coat strands to keep them __

apart

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43

Topoisomerases prevent __

supercoiling

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44

DNA gyrase is the topoisomerase involved in DNA __

replication

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45

The leading strand is synthesized continuously from an __ primer

initial

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46

The lagging strand is synthesized discontinuously with __ priming events

multiple

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47

DNA fragments on the lagging strand are called __ fragments

okazaki

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48

Synthesis occurs at the __ fork

replication

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49

partial opening of a helix forms the __ __

replication fork

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50

DNA primase makes __ primer

RNA

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51

DNA pol III is like the __ strand

leading

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52

Primase makes __ primer for each okazaki fragment

RNA

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53

DNA pol I removes all __ primers and replaces with DNA

RNA

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54

Multiple replicons means there is multiple origins of replications for each __

chromosome

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55

__ uses a complex of both DNA polymerase a and primase

priming

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56

DNA polymerase __ synthesizes leading strand

epsilon

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57

DNA polymerase __ is involved in replication and repair

delta

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58

telomeres are specialized structures found on the ends of __ chromosomes

eukaryotic

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59

telomeres are composed of specific __

sequences

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60

telomeres protect ends of chromosomes from __ and maintain the integrity of linear chromosomes

nucleases

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61

telomerase contributes to __

cancer

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62

__ repair targets a single kind of lesion in DNA and repairs only that damage

specific

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63

photorepair is a specific repair mechanism using __ dimers caused by UV light

thymine

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64

Photolyase absorbs light in visible light, and uses the energy to cleave __ dimer

thymine

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65

nonspecific repair is used when the damaged region is removed and replaced by __ synthesis

DNA

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66

nonspecific repair recognizes damage, removes damaged region, and __ the information on the undamaged strand as a template

resynthesizes

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67

Beadle and tatum used __ to damage DNA

Xrays

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68

Beadle and Tatum looked for __ mutations, and used a __ medium

nutritional, Minimal

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69

Beadle and Tatum looked for fungal cells lacking __ enzymes

specific

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70

One __, one __ hypothesis has become one __ one ___ hypothesis from Beadle and Tatum

gene, enzyme, gene, polypeptide

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71

DNA becomes RNA through ___, then RNA to protein through ___

transcription, translation

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72

RNA can convert to DNA through reverse __

transcriptase

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73

___ can convert their RNA genome into DNA

retroviruses

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74

In transcription, only the template strand of __ is used. The strand of DNA not used as template is the __ strand

DNA, coding

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75

Transcription is the DNA directed synthesis of __

RNA

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76

T in DNA is replaced by _ in RNA

U

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77

mRNA is used to direct the synthesis of __, carries the code from DNA

polypeptides

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78

rRNA decodes ___ to synthesize a polypeptide

mRNA

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79

tRNA transfers amino acids to the __

ribosome

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80

snRNA are involved in __

splicing

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81

Crick and Brenner determined how the nucleotide order in DNA encoded __ ___ order

amino acid

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82

A __ is a block of 3 DNA nucleotides, which corresponds to an amino acid

codon

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83

The genetic code for each amino acid consists of __ nucleotides

3

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84

Three bases coding for an amino acid are known as a __

codon

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85

Codons to terminate translation are known as __ codons: U__, U_A, and U_G

stop, AA, G, A

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86

Codon used to start translation are known as _ codons: A_G

Start, U

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87

Code is degenerate meaning some amino acids are specified by more than one __

codon

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88

2 forms of RNA polymerase are core and __enzyme

holo

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89

The holoenzyme is needed to accurately initiate synthesis, and formed by addition of a __ factor

sigma

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90

Transcription does not require a __

primer

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91

Initiation of transcription requires a ___, which forms the binding and recognition site for RNA polymerase

primer

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92

Promoters are found upstream from the start site, indicates the direction of __, and is not transcribed itself

transcription

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93

Transcription requires a __ site

start

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94

Transcription unit equals a __, a __ site, and a ___ site

promoter, start, termination

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95

Transcription elongation grows in the _ prime to _ prime direction as ribonucleotides are added

5, 3

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96

RNA polymerase 1 transcribes __ , RNA polymerase 2 transcribes ___ and some snRNA, and RNA polymerase 3 transcribes __ and some other small RNAs

rRNA, mRNA, tRNA

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97

Each RNA polymerase recognizes its own __

promoter

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98

Eukaryotes modify the primary transcript to become mature mRNA, modifications include the addition of a __ prime cap, a __ prime poly-A tail, and the removal of __

5, 3, introns

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99

Non-coding sequences are known as __

introns

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100

Sequences that will be translated are known as __

Exons

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