Histology Final Chapter 9 Cartilage and Bones

studied byStudied by 1 person
5.0(1)
get a hint
hint

Cartilage

1 / 103

encourage image

There's no tags or description

Looks like no one added any tags here yet for you.

104 Terms

1

Cartilage

Tough, durable form of supporting connective tissue, characterized by an extracellular matrix (ECM) with high concentrations of GAGs and proteoglycans, interacting with collagen and elastic fibers

New cards
2

Bear mechanical stresses

ECM has a firm consistency that allows the tissue to ____________________ without permanent distortion

New cards
3

Respiratory Tract, Ears, and Nose

Where does cartilage form framework supporting softer tissues?

New cards
4

Cushioning and sliding regions

Cartilage Provides ___________________ within Skeletal Joints and Facilitates bone movements

New cards
5

Chondrocytes

Cartilage consists of cells called _____________ embedded in the ECM.

New cards
6

Lacunae

Chondrocytes synthesize and maintain all ECM components and are located in cavities called?

New cards
7

long bones

Cartilage also guides development and growth of _____________, both before and after birth

New cards
8

electrostatic bonds between type II collagen fibrils, hyaluronan, and the sulfated GAGs on densely packed proteoglycans

What gives cartilage its physical properties?

New cards
9

The high content of bound water

What allows cartilage to serve as a shock absorber?

New cards
10

Blood vessels and Nerves

What does Cartilage Lack?

New cards
11

Diffusion from capillaries in surrounding connective tissue (Perichondrium)

How does chondrocytes receive nutrients?

New cards
12

Low metabolic Activity

Since chondrocytes are avascular they exhibit_________________

New cards
13

Perichondrium

A sheath of dense connective tissue that surrounds cartilage in most places, forming an interface between the cartilage and the tissues supported by the cartilage. harbouring blood supply to the cartilage.

New cards
14

Synovial Fluid

Articular cartilage lack perichondrium so there fore it gets it oxygen and nutrients from the ________

New cards
15

Hyaline Cartilage

the most common of the three types of cartilage, homogeneous and semitransparent in the fresh state

New cards
16

Nose, Larynx, trachea, bronchi, ventral ends of ribs and in epiphyseal plates of long bones

Where is hyaline cartilage located?

New cards
17

Temporary skeleton

Hyaline cartilage forms the ____________ in the embryo that is gradually replaced by bone

New cards
18

Osteoarthritis

A chronic Condition that commonly occurs during aging, involves the gradual loss or changed physical properties of the hyaline cartilage that lines the articular ends of bones in joints

New cards
19

Aging and “wear and tear” of hyaline cartilage

What is osteoarthritis caused by?

New cards
20

Benign

Chondroma is what type of cancer tumor?

New cards
21

Malignant

Chondrosacroma tumors are what type of cancer tumor?

New cards
22

Elastic Cartilage

What is similar to hyaline cartilage but contains an abundant network of elastic fibers and collagen type II fibrils. (yellowish color)?

New cards
23

Auricle of the ear, the walls of the external auditory canals, the auditory (Eustachian) tubes, the epiglottis and the upper respiratory track.

Where can elastic cartilage be located?

New cards
24

Fibrocartilage

A mingling of hyaline cartilage and dense connective tissue. Serves as a very tough, yet cushioning support tissue for bone

New cards
25

Intervertebral discs, in attachments of certain ligaments, and in the public symphysis

Where can fibrocartilage be located?

New cards
26

Isogenous aggregates, Type II Collagen

Chondrocytes of fibrocartilage occur singly and often in aligned _____________ producing ____________ and other ECM components

New cards
27

Fibroblasts and dense bundles of type I collagen

What brings extra strength to Fibrocartilage?

New cards
28

The relative scarcity of proteoglycans

What makes fibrocartilage matrix more acidophilic than that of hyaline or elastic cartilage?

New cards
29

Surrounding perichondrium

There is no ________________________ in fibrocartilage

New cards
30

Bone marrow

Where are blood cells formed?

New cards
31

Bone

What provides solid support for the body, protects vital organs such as those in the cranial and thoracic cavities?

New cards
32

Bone Tissue

What serves as a reservoir of calcium, phosphate, and other ions that can be released or stored in a controlled fashion to maintain constant concentrations in body fluids?

New cards
33

Osteocytes

What is found in cavities (lacunae) between bone matrix layers (lamellae), with cytoplasmic processes in small canaliculi?

New cards
34

Osteoblasts

What are growing cells which synthesize and secrete the organic components of the matrix?

New cards
35

Osteoclasts

What are giant, multinucleated cells involved in removing calcified bone matrix and bone remodeling?

New cards
36

Cylindrical spaces of the canaliculi

How do osteocytes and blood capillaries communicate?

New cards
37

Endosteum

What layers of connective tissue containing osteogenic cells surround internal surfaces such as the marrow cavity?

New cards
38

Periosteum

What layers of connective tissue containing osteogenic cells surround the external surface?

New cards
39

Decalcified

What is done to bones so that it can be prepared for sectioning?

New cards
40

Metastatic Tumors

The skeleton is a secondary site for?

New cards
41

Osteosacroma

What is the name of cancer tumors that come from bones?

New cards
42

Small blood and Lymphatic Vessels

How do cancer cells move into the bones?

New cards
43

Breast, Lung, Prostate gland, kidney, or thyroid gland

What are the most common locations where bones get their malignant cancer cells from?

New cards
44

Increase in density

When you exercise and move the bones what happens to them?

New cards
45

Decrease in density

When you DONT exercise and move the bones what happens to them?

New cards
46

Mechanostat

The extensive network of osteocyte dendritic processes and other bones cells have been called?

New cards
47

M-CSF and RANKL

What are the two polypeptides produced by osteoblasts needed for osteoclast development?

New cards
48

enzymatically etched depressions or cavities in the matrix

Whats the resorption Lacunae (Howship Lucunae)

New cards
49

A ruffled border

What does an osteoclast do in order to work with the matrix?

New cards
50

Perforating/Sharpey fibers

What penetrates the bone matrix and binds the periosteum to the bone?

New cards
51

Osteogenitor cells

What plays a prominent role in bone growth and repair?

New cards
52

The periosteum’s inner layer

Osteoblasts, bone lining cells, and mesenchymal stem cells (the osteoprogenitor cells) all make up?

New cards
53

small trabeculae of bony matrix that project into the marrow cavities

what does the endosteum cover?

New cards
54

Endosteum within a sparse, delicate matrix of collagen fibers

What is the difference between Perioseum and Endosteum?

New cards
55

Osteopetrosis

what is a genetic disease characterised by dense and heavy bones?

New cards
56

DEXA Scans

How are patients tested for BMD?

New cards
57

Calcium loss from bones and reduced bone mineral density (BMD)

What is Osteoporosis?

New cards
58

bicarbonate, citrate, magnesium, potassium, and sodium ions. also Noncrystalline calcium phosphate

WHat is also found in the bone matrix other than Calcium Hydroxyapatite?

New cards
59

Type I Collagen

What makes up the majority of the organic matter embedded in the calcified matrix?

New cards
60

Osteonectin

What are the preteoglycans and multiadhesive glycoproteins that are embedded in the calcified matrix?

New cards
61

Osteocalcin

What are calcium binding proteins called?

New cards
62

Osteogenesis

What is bone development also referred as?

New cards
63

Intramembranous ossification

what is process in which osteoblasts differentiate directly from mesenchyme and begin secreting osteoid

New cards
64

Endochondral ossification

What is the process in which a preexisting matrix of hyaline cartilage is eroded and invaded by osteoblasts, which then begin osteoid production?

New cards
65

Osteogenesis imperfecta

What is also known as the “brittle bone disease”?

New cards
66

Defect in collagen Type I

Why is the bone so brittle in osteogenesis imperfecta?

New cards
67

Fragility of bones

what does he defect in Collagen Type I in bone cause?

New cards
68

Joints

Regions where adjacent bones are capped and held together firmly by other connective tissues?

New cards
69

very limited or no movement

What are synarthroses joints classified as?

New cards
70

Fibrous and Cartilaginous

What are joints subdivided into?

New cards
71

synostoses

Whats involves bones linked to other bones and allow essentially no movement. usually In older adults _________ unite the skull bones?

New cards
72

Syndesmoses

Whats joins bones by dense connective tissue only. Examples include the interosseous ligament of the inferior tibiofibular joint and the posterior region of the sacroiliac joints?

New cards
73

Symphyses

what has a thick pad of fibrocartilage between the thin articular cartilage covering the ends of the bones such as the intervertebral discs?

New cards
74

Permit free bone movement. such as the elbow and knee. Unite long bones and allow great mobility

What are diarthroses joints classified as?

New cards
75

Irregular and random arragnment of cells and collagen; lightly calcified

What are the histological features of woven bones?

New cards
76

Developing and growing bones; hard callus of bone fractures

What is the major location of Woven Bones?

New cards
77

Immature bone; primary bone; bundle bone

What are the synonyms of woven bones?

New cards
78

Parallel bundles of collagen in thin layers (lamellae), with regularly spaced cells between; heavily calcified

What are the histological features of Lamellar bones?

New cards
79

All normal regions of adult bone

What is the major location of the lamellar bones?

New cards
80

Mature bone; secondary bone

What are the synonyms for Lamellar bone?

New cards
81

Parallel lamellae or densely

What are the histological features of compact bones?

New cards
82

Thick, outer region (beneath periosteum) of bones

What is the major location of compact bone?

New cards
83

Cortical bone

What is the synonym for Compact bones?

New cards
84

Interconnected thin spicules or trabeculae covered by endosteum

What are the histological features of cancellous bone?

New cards
85

Inner region of bones, adjacent to marrow cavities

What is the major locations of cancellous cone?

New cards
86

Spongy bone; trabecular bone; medullary bone

What is the synonyms of cancellous bone?

New cards
87

Compact Bone

what makes up 80% of all lamellar bone?

New cards
88

Cancellous Bone

What makes up 20% of lamellar bone?

New cards
89

Homogenous, with type II collagen and aggrecan

What are the main features of the ECM in hyaline cartilage?

New cards
90

Type II collagen, aggrecan, and darker elastic fibers

What is the main features of the ECM in Elastic Cartilage?

New cards
91

Type II collagen and large areas of dense connective tissue with type I collagen

What is the main features of the ECM in Fibrocartilage?

New cards
92

Chondrocytes and Chondroblasts

What are the major cells in Hyaline and Elastic Cartilage?

New cards
93

Chondrocytes and fibroblasts

What are the major cells in fibrocartilage?

New cards
94

isolated or in small isogenous groups

what is the typical arrangment of chondrocytes in Hyaline cartilage?

New cards
95

Usually in small isogenous groups

What is the typical arrangement of chondrocytes in Elastic cartilage?

New cards
96

Isolated or in isogenous groups arranged axially

what is the typical arrangement of chondrocytes in Fibrocartilage?

New cards
97

Yes

Is there a presence of perichondrium in Elastic and Hyaline cartilage?

New cards
98

No

Is there a presence of perichondrium in fibrocartilage?

New cards
99

Many components of upper respiratory tract; articular ends and epiphyseal plates of long bones; fetal skeleton

What are the main locations or examples of hyaline cartilage?

New cards
100

External ear, external acoustic meatus, auditory tube, epiglottis and certain other laryngeal cartilages

What are the main locations or examples of elastic cartilage?

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 10 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 9 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 19 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 6 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 60 people
Updated ... ago
4.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 3 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 9 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 8 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard31 terms
studied byStudied by 4 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard133 terms
studied byStudied by 3 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard55 terms
studied byStudied by 16 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard48 terms
studied byStudied by 6 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard71 terms
studied byStudied by 155 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(4)
flashcards Flashcard185 terms
studied byStudied by 35 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard26 terms
studied byStudied by 155 people
Updated ... ago
4.5 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard27 terms
studied byStudied by 3 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)